Terms in this set (45) What are the biological theories of sex differences? Biological theories of sex differences state that genes and hormones, as well as the structure and function of the brain, are the causes of observed differences in cognition, behavior, and even gender roles.
What is the biological theory of gender development?
The biological approach towards gender development suggests that there is no distinction between sex and gender. This approach believes that biological sex creates gendered behaviour. It also suggests that gender is determined by biological factors, such as hormones.
What are the biological differences between genders?
The two sexes are differentiated as females, who have ovaries and produce eggs, and males, who have testes and produce sperm. In mammals, females typically have XX chromosomes and males typically have XY chromosomes.
What is the impact of biological processes on gender identity?
Biological factors also make a significant contribution to gender identity development. Recent research in both humans and primates shows that sexually dimorphic toy preferences reflect basic neurobiological differences between boys and girls that precede social or cognitive influences (Williams & Pleil, 2008).
What is the biological theory?
Biological Theory is devoted to theoretical advances in the fields of evolution and cognition with an emphasis on the conceptual integration afforded by evolutionary and developmental approaches.
Is gender influenced by biology?
“Sex and gender interact; gender behaviors — such as a person’s choice of shoes — can shape biology and biology certainly influences gender.” Like gender, the influence of sex on health and biology runs deep. At the most basic level, it controls whether, when and how our genes are made into proteins.
How many biological differences are there between males and females?
Men and women have practically the same set of about 20,000 genes. The only physical difference in their genetic make up is in the sex chromosomes. Only males have a Y chromosome. Although the X chromosome is present in both sexes, there are two copies in females and only one in males.
What is the meaning of gender differences?
typical differences between men and women that are specific to a particular culture and influenced by its attitudes and practices. Gender differences emerge in a variety of domains, such as careers, communication, and interpersonal relationships. See also sex differences.
What are some of the factors that contribute to these gender differences?
Factors that influence gender differences in mortality include biological factors such as hormonal influences on physiology and behavior, and environmental factors, such as cultural influences on gender differences in health behaviors. The importance of specific factors may reflect the environmental context.
How does biology influence our gender psychology quizlet?
-Biological psychology argues that psychological or behavioural differences between males and females can be explained by differences in brain development and brain activity between males and females.
Gender is a social, rather than a biological construct, and varies with the roles, norms and values of a given society or era.
What are the four theories of the origins of gender differences?
Prominent psychological theories of gender role and gender identity development include evolutionary theory (Buss 1995; Shields 1975), object-relations theory (Chodorow 1989), gender schema theory (Bem 1981, 1993) and social role theory (Eagly 1987).
Why might many people disagree with biological theories of gender differences?
These theories might cause disagreement among many people because there is a lot of evidence that nurture (our environment, upbringing), as nature (our biology), has an influence on our behavior – psychoanalytical, social learning theory and cognitive-developmental theory all suggest that our behavior and differences …
What are gender schemas? How does social learning contribute to the formation of each? Social learning contributes to gender schema formation by the observation of gender roles, the rewarding of gender-appropriate behaviors, and the ways in which gender is discussed.
What is an example of a biological theory?
One example of a biological theory is the germ theory of disease. the germ theory of disease posits that certain microbes can make us ill if we are exposed to a certain amount of them and that some illnesses caused by certain microorganisms can be spread person-to-person.
How the biological theory affects the human behavior?
The biological approach believes behavior to be as a consequence of our genetics and physiology. It is the only approach in psychology that examines thoughts, feelings, and behaviors from a biological and thus physical point of view. Therefore, all that is psychological is first physiological.
Why is biological theory important?
By looking at the biological bases of human behavior, psychologists are better able to understand how the brain and physiological processes might influence the way people think, act, and feel.
What are the three major theories of gender development?
Abstract. Given the ubiquitous influence of gender in a person’s life, a number of theories have been developed to explain gender development. These theories can be generally divided into three families: biological, socialization, and cognitive.
What is the biological difference?
Sex refers to biological differences between males and females. For example, chromosomes (female XX, male XY), reproductive organs (ovaries, testes), hormones (oestrogen, testosterone). Gender refers to the cultural differences expected (by society / culture) of men and women according to their sex.
In what ways are human males and females different from each other?
The most obvious differences between males and females include all the features related to reproductive roles, notably the endocrine (hormonal) systems and their physiological and behavioral effects, including gonadal differentiation, internal and external genital and breast differentiation, and differentiation of …
What is an example of gender differences?
For example, girls and women are generally expected to dress in typically feminine ways and be polite, accommodating, and nurturing. Men are generally expected to be strong, aggressive, and bold. Every society, ethnic group, and culture has gender role expectations, but they can be very different from group to group.
What are gender differences psychology?
Psychological sex differences refer to emotional, motivational, or cognitive differences between the sexes. Examples include greater male tendencies toward violence, or greater female empathy.
What is gender differences in sociology?
It refers to the social and cultural differences a society assigns to people based on their (biological) sex. A related concept, gender roles, refers to a society’s expectations of people’s behavior and attitudes based on whether they are females or males.
Biological factors that may influence gender identity include pre- and post-natal hormone levels and genetic makeup. Social factors include ideas regarding gender roles conveyed by family, authority figures, mass media, and other influential people in a child’s life.
Why is it important to research gender differences?
There are at least three reasons to study gender differences: i) to understand the source of any inequalities; ii) to improve average performance; and iii) to improve our understanding of how students learn.