Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic condition that can lead to a high fever, bleeding into the skin, and cell death in the liver and kidneys. If enough liver cells die, liver damage occurs, leading to jaundice, a condition in which the skin takes on a yellowish color.
What is yellow fever biology?
Yellow fever virus is an RNA virus that belongs to the genus Flavivirus. It is related to West Nile, St. Louis encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Yellow fever virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of infected Aedes or Haemagogus species mosquitoes.
How does yellow fever spread and attack?
Yellow fever is spread by the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. A mosquito becomes infected when it bites a person who has yellow fever in his or her blood. Direct spread of yellow fever from one person to another does not occur.
What organs does yellow fever attack?
High fever returns and several body systems are affected, usually the liver and the kidneys. In this phase people are likely to develop jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes, hence the name ‘yellow fever’), dark urine and abdominal pain with vomiting. Bleeding can occur from the mouth, nose, eyes or stomach.
What causes yellow fever virus?
Yellow fever is caused by a virus carried by mosquitoes. You can develop this disease if you are bitten by a mosquito infected with this virus. This disease is common in South America and in sub-Saharan Africa. Anyone can get yellow fever, but older people have a higher risk of severe infection.
Where does yellow fever virus occur?
The yellow fever virus is found in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa and South America. The virus is spread to people by the bite of an infected mosquito. Yellow fever is a very rare cause of illness in U.S. travelers.
What bacteria causes yellow fever?
It is caused by a virus of the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. In its natural habitat, it is transmitted between monkeys by forest-dwelling primatophilic Aedes mosquitoes.
What is the vector for yellow fever?
Yellow fever virus is mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, but other mostly Aedes mosquitoes such as the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) can also serve as a vector for this virus.
How does a fever spread?
One of the most common causes of fever is infection, such as infection from a cold or flu virus. Fever-causing viral infections are often highly contagious and spread from person to person through hand-to-hand transmission or transmission via respiratory droplets in the air.
Who is most affected by yellow fever?
Yellow fever virus is estimated to cause 200,000 cases of disease and 30,000 deaths each year, with 90% occurring in Africa. 20% to 50% of infected persons who develop severe disease die.
What is the structure of yellow fever virus?
Mature YFV virions are icosahedral and comprise a nucleocapsid, composed of capsid (C) protein subunits, surrounded by a lipid bilayer derived from host membranes. The viral envelope is studded with dimers of envelope (E) glycoprotein and membrane (M) protein (Fig. 2).
What is the pathogenesis of yellow fever?
Yellow fever is caused by an arbovirus of the family Flaviviridae, a positive single-stranded RNA virus. Human infection begins after deposition of viral particles through the skin in infected arthropod saliva. The mosquitos involved are Aedes simpsaloni, A. africanus, and A.
Why is yellow fever called yellow fever?
Yellow fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by mosquitoes. Yellow fever can lead to serious illness and even death. It is called ‘yellow fever’ because in serious cases, the skin turns yellow in colour. This is known as ‘jaundice’.
What are the 3 stages of yellow fever?
Disease/Infection Classic Yellow Fever is characterized by three clinical illness stages: infection, remission, and intoxication. Infection is characterized by abrupt fever, chills, headaches, myalgias, nausea, anorexia, and jaundice.
Who found cause for yellow fever?
On August 27, 1900, Carroll allowed an infected mosquito to feed on him. He developed a severe case of yellow fever but helped his colleague, Walter Reed, prove that mosquitoes transmitted the feared disease.
How many people died from yellow fever?
Yellow fever epidemics caused terror, economic disruption, and some 100,000-150,000 deaths.
What is scientific name for yellow fever?
Flaviviruses (Dengue, Yellow Fever, Japanese Encephalitis, West Nile Encephalitis, Usutu Encephalitis, St.
Is 99 a fever?
An adult probably has a fever when the temperature is above 99°F to 99.5°F (37.2°C to 37.5°C), depending on the time of day.
There is no problem in giving bath or head bath during any illness. It will keep the child clean and cool . In fact when fever is very high we advise on application of lukewarm water to the body to lower the fever fast.
Do popsicles help with fever?
Fruit Popsicles Iced popsicles can cool down your child’s temperature from the inside and hydrate them at the same time.
What is the vaccine called for yellow fever?
YF-VAX®, Yellow Fever Vaccine, for subcutaneous use, is prepared by culturing the 17D-204 strain of yellow fever virus in living avian leukosis virus-free (ALV-free) chicken embryos. The vaccine contains sorbitol and gelatin as a stabilizer, is lyophilized, and is hermetically sealed under nitrogen.
What is the toxic phase of yellow fever?
Toxic phase These can include: Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) Abdominal pain and vomiting, sometimes of blood. Decreased urination.
What is pathophysiology of a disease?
Definition of pathophysiology : the physiology of abnormal states specifically : the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease.
Is yellow fever still around in 2022?
Abstract. In 2022, as of epidemiological week (EW) 18, confirmed cases of yellow fever have been reported in three countries in the Region: Bolivia (5 confirmed cases), Brazil (3 confirmed cases), and Peru (2 confirmed cases).
Who cured yellow fever?
In 1951, Max Theiler of the Rockefeller Foundation received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discovery of an effective vaccine against yellow fever—a discovery first reported in the JEM 70 years ago. This was the first, and so far the only, Nobel Prize given for the development of a virus vaccine.