How does Zika virus replicate its genome?

Replication takes place at the surface of endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasmic viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+). The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes. Virus assembly occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum.

How does the Zika virus work?

The Zika virus is most often spread to a person through the bite of an infected mosquito. If a mosquito bites a person who is already infected with the Zika virus, the virus infects the mosquito. Then, when the infected mosquito bites another person, the virus enters that person’s bloodstream and causes an infection.

Is Zika virus RNA or DNA?

Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. Zika virus is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae.

What is the pathogenesis of Zika virus?

Pathogenesis in humans. Following a mosquito bite from a ZIKV-infected mosquito, ZIKV infects and replicates in dendritic cells, spreading through the blood to other parts of the human body. In most cases, the virus is self-limiting; however, infections in pregnant women result in teratogenic effects [17.

Can you get Zika from kissing?

Zika has been detected in semen, vaginal fluids, saliva, urine, and breast milk. There is no evidence at present that Zika can be transmitted through saliva during deep kissing.

What is the structure of the Zika virus?

Zika virions are comprised of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. The virus particles are spherical and small in size (approximately 50 nm in diameter) with an electron-dense core approximately 30 nm in diameter. The virion surface contains envelope protein (E) dimers and membrane (M) proteins in icosahedral-like symmetry.

What receptor does Zika virus bind to?

Zika virus entry receptor AXL is a key receptor being responsible for Zika virus entry. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing.

Which cells does Zika first enter?

ZIKV exhibits preferential infection of neural progenitor cells, leading to cell-cycle arrest, increased apoptosis, and inhibition of NPC differentiation. All of these outcomes following ZIKV infection are associated with delayed development and birth defects, such as microcephaly in the mouse model [30].

Is Zika positive or negative RNA?

Conclusions and Future Directions Virologically, Zika is an enveloped virus with a nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA genome, which replicates in the cytoplasm.

What bacteria causes Zika?

The pathogen Zika virus disease is caused by a virus from the Flavivirus genus, Flaviviridae family, from the Spondweni group. It was first isolated in 1947 from a monkey in the Zika forest, Uganda, then in mosquitoes (Aedes africanus) in the same forest in 1948, and in a human in Nigeria in 1952.

Is Zika a pathogen or vector?

Other viral diseases transmitted by vectors include chikungunya fever, Zika virus fever, yellow fever, West Nile fever, Japanese encephalitis (all transmitted by mosquitoes), tick-borne encephalitis (transmitted by ticks).

What organ does Zika affect?

Very rarely, Zika may cause severe disease affecting the brain, causing swelling of the brain or spinal cord or a blood disorder which can result in bleeding, bruising or slow blood clotting.

What is pathophysiology of a disease?

Definition of pathophysiology : the physiology of abnormal states specifically : the functional changes that accompany a particular syndrome or disease.

Is Zika still active?

Zika continues to be a problem in many parts of the world. There is no vaccine to prevent infection. Zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae.

How long does Zika survive in sperm?

The CDC currently recommends that men who have traveled to a Zika-active region either use condoms or abstain from sex for at least 6 months. But that guideline is based on data showing that genetic traces of Zika virus can be found in semen 180 days after infection.

How long does Zika stay in your system?

Zika virus (ZIKV) has been identified in several body fluids of infected individuals. In most cases, it remained detected in blood from few days to 1 week after the onset of symptoms, and can persist longer in urine and in semen.

Does Zika virus have a protein cap?

A) The 5′-cap of the Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA is methylatedby the viral MTase domain of NS5. Shown is the chemical structure of the methylated 5′ cap on the ZIKV gRNA. B)

Does the Zika virus have a membrane?

Zika virus is shown in cross section at center left. On the outside, it includes envelope protein (red) and membrane protein (magenta) embedded in a lipid membrane (light purple). Inside, the RNA genome (yellow) is associated with capsid proteins (orange).

Is Zika virus naked or enveloped?

ZIKV is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that is closely related to dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV) (Fajardo et al., 2016; Kruger, 2016).

How does Zika virus invade host cells?

The Cellular Receptors for ZIKV Entry. Flaviviruses enter host cells by clathrin-dependent endocytosis, which is initiated when viral particles interact with cell surface receptors. The cell surface receptors bind to the infectious viral particles and direct them to the endocytic pathway.

How does the Zika virus infect the host?

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunya viruses.

How big is a Zika virus particle?

Zika virions are comprised of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. The virus particles are spherical and small in size (approximately 50 nm in diameter) with an electron-dense core approximately 30 nm in diameter. The virion surface contains envelope protein (E) dimers and membrane (M) proteins in icosahedral-like symmetry.

How does Zika virus multiply?

Zika virus is transmitted primarily through the bite of an infected female mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite a person who is infected with the virus. The virus then replicates and spreads within the mosquito so that when the infected mosquito bites again, the virus is spread to another person.

Does Zika have reverse transcriptase?

As an example of Zika virus, an RNA polymerase on the NS5 subunit of the Zika virus polyprotein has been indicated for viral genome replication (RNA-dependent-RNA polymerase activity), without the involvement of reverse transcriptase (Godoy et al., 2017).

What does Zika do to babies?

In pregnant women, the virus can cause miscarriages, stillborn babies, or babies born with birth defects. One serious birth defect caused by Zika (ZEE-kuh) is microcephaly (the medical word for small head). When a baby has microcephaly, the brain and skull don’t grow properly and the baby may have delayed development.

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