# How is physics used in catapults?

Catapults operate using projectile motion, which is a form of science called Physics. Catapult physics is basically the use of stored energy to hurl a projectile (the payload). The three primary energy storage mechanisms are tension, torsion, and gravity.

## How do you make a mechanical catapult?

To build a strong catapult, build a base supported with plywood triangles, with a cross brace at the top. Attach a launching basket to the throwing arm, and attach the arm to the base at one end with a long piece of rope that is wrapped through the frame and around the arm in an over-under-over pattern.

## How does a catapult work step by step?

1. Pull the arm back (rope in case of Ballista)
2. Place missiles in bucket, sling, or nook.
3. Release potential energy. Work is done on the arm.
4. Arm collides with with base and is brought to an abrupt stop.
5. Missiles retain the kinetic energy from the work done on the arm.

## How do you build a wood catapult?

1. Drill holes at the end of your wood. Grab your two 24-inch-long pieces of wood.
2. Mark and chisel the wood. Measure down 5.5 inches and 8 inches down from the end of the wood with the hole in, and mark them.
4. Attach the legs.
6. Cut the angle.
8. Drill in the eye hooks.

## How do you make a catapult for a school project?

1. Stack five craft sticks together and wrap a rubber band around each end.
2. Stack two craft sticks and wrap a rubber band around only one end.
3. Slide the five sticks in-between the two sticks, as shown.
4. Wrap a rubber band where the two sections meet to hold the catapult together.

## Which force is used in catapult?

A catapult uses the sudden release of stored potential energy to propel its payload. Most convert tension or torsion energy that was more slowly and manually built up within the device before release, via springs, bows, twisted rope, elastic, or any of numerous other materials and mechanisms.

## What materials do you need to make a catapult?

1. Eight craft sticks (popsicle sticks)
2. Four or five sturdy rubber bands.
3. Glue.
4. Plastic bottle cap to hold a cotton ball.
5. Cotton ball (If you do not have any available, you can make a small ball by crumbling some paper.)
6. Small open area (One square meter will do.

## What is the best catapult design?

The Trebuchet: The Trebuchet was one of the more accurate and efficient types of catapult used in ancient times. It worked by using the energy of a falling counterweight to rotate a beam around a pivot resulting in the release of whatever projectile was loaded into the sling at the other end of the beam.

## What makes a catapult go farther?

Use the tension of bungee cords as opposed to springs to power your catapult. The cords should be attached to the front of the catapult and at the front of the catapult arm. When the arm is pulled back, the tension in the cord will pull the arm forward.

## Is catapult push or pull?

Students pull back on the catapult, powering it up. When released, the catapult’s moving arm pushes a projectile, making it move in turn. Gravity and air resistance eventually stop the projectile.

## How is a catapult built?

Nearly all catapults employed in ancient and medieval artillery operated by a sudden release of tension on bent wooden beams or of torsion in twisted cords of horsehair, gut, sinew, or other fibres. An exception was the medieval trebuchet, powered by gravity.

## How do you make a catapult with rubber bands and pencils?

Attach a pencil halfway up one side of your supports using rubber bands. Start by hooking one end of the rubber band around the pencil’s end, then wrap it around both pencils until it’s tight and you can hook the remaining end. This is the pivot point which will attach to your catapult’s arm.

## What are the parts of a catapult called?

Both catapults and trebuchets are made up of 3 essential parts: 1. a stable base 2. an arm 3. a structure that (slowly) stores potential energy until it can be released (quickly) as the kinetic energy of mo- tion of the projectile.

## What are 5 types of catapults?

The main types of catapults used were the trebuchet, mangonel, onager, and ballista.

## What causes a catapult to launch?

The catapult works when the potential energy stored in a stretched rubber band is converted to kinetic energy when it snaps back to its loose shape, moving the catapult arm—and the projectile!

## How far can a catapult fire?

Catapults can launch things a fair distance — 500 to 1,000 feet (150 to 300 meters) is common. It is surprising how much energy they can store. The gears are important, because they create a winch.

## How does gravity affect the catapult when in use?

The catapult applies a force to the object in both the horizontal (forward) and vertical (upward) directions, and gravity pulls the object vertically downward.

## What type of lever is a catapult?

A catapult is classified as a class 1 lever. Class 1 levers are designed to change directions of the resistance (or load) with effort.

## What type of catapult launches the farthest?

A trebuchet (French: trébuchet) is a type of catapult that uses a long arm to throw a projectile. It was a common powerful siege engine until the advent of gunpowder. The design of a trebuchet allows it to launch projectiles of greater weights further distances than that of a traditional catapult.

## How do you calculate the distance a catapult will throw something?

The equation for the distance traveled by a projectile being affected by gravity is sin(2θ)v2/g, where θ is the angle, v is the initial velocity and g is acceleration due to gravity. Assuming that v2/g is constant, the greatest distance will be when sin(2θ) is at its maximum, which is when 2θ = 90 degrees.

## Does the length of a catapult arm affect distance?

Overall, as the arm length of the catapult increased, the ball was thrown farther.