What are phenolics?

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Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites, which are produced in the shikimic acid of plants and pentose phosphate through phenylpropanoid metabolization [1]. They contain benzene rings, with one or more hydroxyl substituents, and range from simple phenolic molecules to highly polymerized compounds [2] (Figure 1).

What is the function of phenolics?

Phenolics play important roles in plant development, particularly in lignin and pigment biosynthesis. They also provide structural integrity and scaffolding support to plants.

What are some examples of phenolics?

-Examples of phenolics compounds commonly present in foods: phenols (ferulic acid and gallic acid), biphenols (resveratrol), and polyphenols (tannic acid). Polyphenols are the most abundant antioxidants in human diet.

What is the source of phenolics?

Cocoa, potato, yam, tomato, kale, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and others dark green leafy and brightly-colored vegetables as well as legumes and cereals, in addition to spices and fruits such as cherries and citrus, are particularly rich in phenolic compounds.

What are phenolics in fruits?

Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites widely found in fruits, mostly represented by flavonoids and phenolic acids. The growing interest in these substances is mainly because of their antioxidant potential and the association between their consumption and the prevention of some diseases.

What type of material is phenolic?

Phenolics are the result of polymerization between layers of paper, canvas, linen, or glass cloth impregnated with synthetic thermosetting resins. This laminated material is a popular alternative to acrylic because of its high resistance to flexing.

Why are phenolics important to plants?

Phenolic compounds regulate crucial physiological functions in plants to provide resistance against various biotic and abiotic stress conditions. To protect against UV radiation plants synthesize phenolic acids and flavonoids to scavenge the reactive oxygen species generated due to light stress.

What are simple phenolics?

Simple phenols (1) are described as compounds having at least one hydroxyl group attached to an aromatic ring as a basic skeleton. Within the class of simple phenols are phenol (6), catechol (7), resorcinol (8), and phloroglucinol (9).

What are the different types of phenols?

  • Monohydric phenols: They contain one -OH group.
  • Dihydric phenols: They contain two -OH groups. They may be ortho-, meta- or para- derivative.
  • Trihydric phenols: They contain three -OH groups.

Where is phenols found?

Notable sources of natural phenols in human nutrition include berries, tea, beer, olive oil, chocolate or cocoa, coffee, pomegranates, popcorn, yerba maté, fruits and fruit based drinks (including cider, wine and vinegar) and vegetables.

What products are made from phenolic?

Industrial and Consumer Product Applications Phenolics also can be used as an intermediate for industrial synthesis to make a variety of products, ranging from plastics, explosives, paints, fertilizers, textiles, aspirin and paper.

Is phenolic an antioxidant?

Phenolic compounds (PCs) acts as an antioxidant by reacting with a variety of free radicals. The mechanism of antioxidant actions involved either by hydrogen atom transfer, transfer of a single electron, sequential proton loss electron transfer, and chelation of transition metals.

What is a phenolic structure?

Phenolic compounds are defined as natural metabolites arising biogenetically from either the shikimate/phenylpropanoid pathway, which directly provides phenylpropanoids. Their structure consists of an aromatic ring, containing one or more hydroxyl substituents (Tsao, 2010).

What is the difference between phenols and phenolics?

Phenolic compounds are a group of small molecules characterized by their structures having at least one phenol unit. Based on their chemical structures, phenolic compounds can be divided into different subgroups, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, lignans, quinones, stilbens, and curcuminoids.

What are phenolics effective against?

Polyphenols exhibit antimicrobial activity against broad spectrum of bacteria.

What is the nature of phenolic group?

Phenolic compounds can be defined as plant substances, which possess in common an aromatic ring bearing one or more hydroxyl groups. They are the most widely distributed in the plant kingdom and are the most abundant secondary metabolites of plants.

How do you identify phenol?

Dissolve the given organic compound in glacial acetic acid. Add bromine water solution to this dropwise. If the colour of bromine disappears then it indicates the presence of phenol.

Which hormone is derived from phenol?

Phenolic natural compounds include tyrosine, serotonin and adrenaline (epinephrine). Adrenaline is a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands and is responsible for the ‘fight or flight’ response of our body. Adrenaline is derived from the amino acid tyrosine, which is also a phenolic compound.

Is phenolic toxic?

Exposure to phenol may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and nervous system. Some symptoms of exposure to phenol are weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, muscle aches, and pain. Severe exposure can cause liver and/or kidney damage, skin burns, tremor, convulsions, and twitching.

How are phenols produced?

Phenol is derived from benzene and propylene. These raw materials are first used to produce cumene, which is then oxidised to become cumene hydroperoxide, before being split into phenol and its co-product, acetone.

What is the mechanism of action of phenolics?

The most commonly reported mechanism of action of phenolics against bacteria is based on their accumulation at the surface of bacteria (Negi, 2012). This accumulation depends on interactions between phenolics and the cell wall of bacteria.

What antioxidant means?

Listen to pronunciation. (AN-tee-OK-sih-dent) A substance that protects cells from the damage caused by free radicals (unstable molecules made by the process of oxidation during normal metabolism). Free radicals may play a part in cancer, heart disease, stroke, and other diseases of aging.

What foods contain polyphenol antioxidants?

  • Berries. Berries are low in calories and high in vitamin C, fiber, and polyphenols, making them an easy addition to any diet.
  • Herbs and Spices. To boost your meal with polyphenols, look no further than your spice cabinet.
  • Cocoa Powder.
  • Nuts.
  • Flaxseeds.
  • Vegetables.
  • Olives.
  • Coffee and Tea.

What is classification of phenolics?

Phenolic compounds can generally be classified into simple and polyphenolic compounds [9, 10, 11, 12].

How are phenolics used in microbial control?

The phenolics damage cell membranes and inactivate enzymes of microorganisms, while denaturing their proteins. They includecresols, such as Lysol, as well as several bisphenols, such as hexachlorophene, which is particularly effective against staphylococci (Figure 1 ).

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