Biological replicates are parallel measurements of biologically distinct samples that capture random biological variation, which can be a subject of study or a source of noise itself.  Biological replicates are important because they address how widely your experimental results can be generalized.
What does replicates mean in science?
: to repeat or duplicate (as an experiment) intransitive verb. : to undergo replication : produce a replica of itself virus particles replicating in cells.
What are replicates used for?
Replicates can be used to measure variation in the experiment so that statistical tests can be applied to evaluate differences. Averaging across replicates increases the precision of gene expression measurements and allows smaller changes to be detected.
What is replicate and examples?
1. Replication is the act of reproducing or copying something, or is a copy of something. When an experiment is repeated and the results from the original are reproduced, this is an example of a replication of the original study. A copy of a Monet painting is an example of a replication. noun.
What is a replicate in an experiment example?
What is a replicate? Replicates are multiple experimental runs with the same factor settings (levels). Replicates are subject to the same sources of variability, independently of each other. You can replicate combinations of factor levels, groups of factor level combinations, or entire designs.
Why are replicates needed in an experiment?
Replication lets you see patterns and trends in your results. This is affirmative for your work, making it stronger and better able to support your claims. This helps maintain integrity of data. On the other hand, repeating experiments allows you to identify mistakes, flukes, and falsifications.
What is replication in simple words?
1 : the action or process of reproducing or duplicating replication of DNA. 2 : performance of an experiment or procedure more than once.
What is DNA replication explain?
DNA replication is the process by which the genome’s DNA is copied in cells. Before a cell divides, it must first copy (or replicate) its entire genome so that each resulting daughter cell ends up with its own complete genome.
How do cells replicate?
During mitosis, a cell duplicates all of its contents, including its chromosomes, and splits to form two identical daughter cells. Because this process is so critical, the steps of mitosis are carefully controlled by certain genes. When mitosis is not regulated correctly, health problems such as cancer can result.
How many replicates does an experiment have?
You can determine the number of experiments you would do by multiplying 3X4X n, where n is the number of replications. Please note that replications should be at least 2. The more you do replications, the more precise results you get. Best of luck!
How many biological replicates are there?
For future RNA-seq experiments, these results suggest that at least six biological replicates should be used, rising to at least 12 when it is important to identify SDE genes for all fold changes.
Does replicate mean reproduce?
to repeat, duplicate, or reproduce, especially for experimental purposes: We were unable to replicate the same results in the field. Genetics. (of a cell) to make a copy of (its DNA): The cell replicates its DNA to begin the process of cell division. verb (used without object), rep·li·cat·ed, rep·li·cat·ing.
Where does DNA replication occur?
DNA replication occurs in the interphase nuclei of eukaryotic cells. DNA replication occurs before mitosis at the S-stage (synthesis) of the cell cycle.
What does replicate mean in terms of mitosis?
In genetics, to replicate means to reproduce an exact copy of the genetic material prior to mitosis (or meiosis) in eukaryotic cells.
What is the difference between sample size and replicates?
Replicate: A replicate is one experimental unit in one treatment. The number of replicates is the number of experimental units in a treatment. Total sample size: My guess is that this is a count of the number of experimental units in all treatments.
What is DNA replication called?
The process of DNA duplication is called DNA replication. Replication follows several steps that involve multiple proteins called replication enzymes and RNA. In eukaryotic cells, such as animal cells and plant cells, DNA replication occurs in the S phase of interphase during the cell cycle.
Why do we replicate DNA?
DNA replication needs to occur because existing cells divide to produce new cells. Each cell needs a full instruction manual to operate properly. So the DNA needs to be copied before cell division so that each new cell receives a full set of instructions!
What is DNA replication example?
As a consequence, it is telomeres that are shortened with each round of DNA replication instead of genes. For example, in humans, a six base-pair sequence, TTAGGG, is repeated 100 to 1000 times. The discovery of the enzyme telomerase (Figure 9.2. 4) helped in the understanding of how chromosome ends are maintained.
What are the 3 types of DNA replication?
There were three models for how organisms might replicate their DNA: semi-conservative, conservative, and dispersive.
When and where does replication occur?
DNA replication occurs during the S phase (the Synthesis phase) of the cell cycle, before mitosis and cell division. The base pairing rules are crucial for the process of replication. DNA replication occurs when DNA is copied to form an identical molecule of DNA.
What are the 4 steps of replication?
- H bonds break between the two strands.
- 2 strands of DNA molecules separate (enzyme)
- bases of free nucleotides in nucleus of cell fasten onto complementary bases on each exposed strand (enzymes to proofread)
- nucleotides join together making complete complementary strands.
What is a biological replicate in cell culture?
Biological replicates, on the other hand, are independently repeated experiments performed on cells of the same cell line but derived from a biologically distinct source or of a different passage.
What is the difference between technical and biological replicates?
Generally, biological replicates are defined as measurements of biologically distinct samples that show biological variation (21). In contrast, technical replicates are repeated measurements of the same sample that show independent measures of the noise associated with the equipment and the protocols.
Are replicates independent?
As biological experiments can be complicated, replicate measurements are often taken to monitor the performance of the experiment, but such replicates are not independent tests of the hypothesis, and so they cannot provide evidence of the reproducibility of the main results.
What is the difference between replicate and reproduce?
So, according to Peng (2011), with replication, an independent group of researchers conduct a replication of a previously conducted study, including collecting and analyzing their own data, to see if they get the same results; with reproduction, an independent group of researchers analyze the data from a previously …