- Bubblepoint pressure.
- Solution gas oil ratio (GOR)
- Formation volume factor.
- Interfacial tension.
- Isothermal compressibility.
What are the chemical properties of oil?
Hydrocarbon compounds are composed of hydrogen and carbon, which are therefore the main elements in oils. Oils also contain varying amounts of sulphur, nitrogen, oxygen, and sometimes mineral salts, as well as trace metals such as nickel, vanadium, and chromium.
Is the most important physical property of the oil?
Viscosity is the most important physical property of a lubricant. How the viscosity of a fluid reacts to changes in temperature, pressure or speed determines how well a fluid can perform the basic functions of a lubricant.
What is petroleum physical and chemical properties?
Chemically, petroleum consists principally of hydrogen and carbon, but also contains small percentages of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and traces of metals, such as vanadium, cobalt, and nickel. The common organic compounds include alkanes (paraffins), naphthenes, aromatics, and heterocompounds.
What are the physical properties of fats and oil?
Each fat and oil have a range of physical, chemical and compositional parameters. Their important physicochemical properties are melting point, polymorphism, solid fat content and fatty acid composition.
What is the most important characteristic of oil?
Considered the most important property of a lubricant, viscosity serves to form a lubricating film, cool machine components, and seal and control oil consumption.
What are the 4 main types of crude oil?
- Light Distillates. These include, among others, gasoline, kerosene, jet fuel and several varieties of petroleum.
- Middle Distillates. These include the majority of Grade 1 and 2 fuel oils and diesels, along with domestic fuel.
- Medium Oils.
- Heavy Fuel Oils.
What is the difference between petroleum and crude oil?
The name petroleum covers both naturally occurring unprocessed crude oil and petroleum products that are made up of refined crude oil. Essentially, while petroleum and oil are often used interchangeably, petroleum includes crude oil AND products, while crude oil is just the raw, unprocessed oil itself.
What is crude oil made of?
Crude oil is made up of a mixture of hydrocarbons – hydrogen and carbon atoms. It exists in liquid form in underground reservoirs in the tiny spaces within sedimentary rocks. Or it can be found near the surface in oil sands. It is often found alongside natural gas and saline water.
Is crude oil flammable?
All crude oils are flammable, to a varying degree. Further, crude oils exhibit other potentially hazardous characteristics as well. The growing perception is that light volatile crude oil, like Bakken crude, is a root cause for catastrophic incidents and thus may be too hazardous to ship by rail.
What are the properties of oil and gas?
Oil properties include solution gas–oil ratio (GOR), density, formation volume factor, viscosity, and compressibility. The latter four properties are interrelated through solution GOR.
What is the importance of crude oil?
Crude oil is mainly used as a fuel and combustible, but is also indispensable as a chemical raw material. It is the foundation of modern life and in virtually every product around us – from smartphones and vehicle parts to wind turbines.
What colour is crude oil?
As well, the colour of crude oils can vary from nearly colourless – light crude oils – to greenish yellow to reddish to black. Black crude oils are very heavy whereas the other colours likely have other non-hydrocarbon components – such as sulfur – changing their colour.
What are the classification of crude oil?
Crude is classified, based on density, as light, medium, heavy, or extra heavy. It can also be classified, based on sulfur content, into a sour and sweet category.
What are the different types of crude oil?
- Class A: Light, Volatile Oils. These oils are:
- Class B: Non-Sticky Oils. These oils have a waxy or oily feel.
- Class C: Heavy, Sticky Oils. Class C oils are characteristically:
- Class D: Nonfluid Oils. Class D oils are:
What are the physical and chemical differences between fats and oils?
The main difference between fats and oils is that fats are composed of high amounts of saturated fatty acids which will take a solid form at room temperature whereas oils are composed of mainly unsaturated fatty acids which will take a liquid form at room temperature.
What is the physical property of vegetable oil?
Physical properties include viscosity, density, cloud point, pour point, flash point, boiling range, freezing point and refractive index. There exist a number of correlations for estimating the HHV of vegetable oils based upon its physical properties , , .
What are the properties of oil and water?
- Water is not miscible in oil. Even oil is not miscible in water.
- Oil is lighter than water. Its density is less. So oil floats on top of water.
- Oil reflects light differently. And has colors. Water is colorless. So we can see the border between water and oil.
What is characterization factor of crude oil?
The characterization factor is a measure of the aromaticity/paraffinicity of a crude oil or of a crude oil fraction. The Watson K factor will range from less than 10 for highly aromatic hydrocarbons and almost 15 for highly paraffinic hydrocarbons. The range for whole crudes is 10.5 to 12.9.
How does crude oil look like?
It is usually black or dark brown (although it may be yellowish, reddish, or even greenish). In the reservoir it is usually found in association with natural gas, which being lighter forms a “gas cap” over the petroleum, and saline water which, being heavier than most forms of crude oil, generally sinks beneath it.
What is the chemical formula of crude oil?
Its chemical formula, C8H18, reflects the fact that each of the carbons is covalently bonded to one or two of the other carbon atoms and two to three hydrogen atoms. Octane burns really efficiently, so having more octane is good.
Why is it called crude oil?
Over millions of years, the remains of these animals and plants were covered by layers of sand, silt, and rock. Heat and pressure from these layers turned the remains into what we now call crude oil or petroleum. The word petroleum means rock oil or oil from the earth.
Why is crude oil yellow?
The color of crude oil varies from black to yellow depending upon the hydrocarbon composition. The crude oil is refined into a number of natural products like gasoline, kerosene, asphalt. The color of gasoline is yellowish in color, kerosene is blue in color.
What is the highest quality crude oil?
Tapis. Tapis, a type of crude found only in Malaysia, is considered the best quality oil in the world. Light and sweet, it’s benchmark traded in Singapore and coveted for its remarkably low sulphur content (0.04 percent) and low density of between 43 and 45° API.
Who discovered crude oil?
Edwin Drake drilled the first successful well through rock and produced crude oil. What some called “Drake’s Folly” was the birth of the modern petroleum industry. He sold his “black gold” for $20 a barrel.