- Anthrax (Bacillus anthracis)
- Botulism (Clostridium botulinum toxin)
- Plague (Yersinia pestis)
- Smallpox (variola major)
- Tularemia (Francisella tularensis)
- Viral hemorrhagic fevers, including. Filoviruses (Ebola, Marburg) Arenaviruses (Lassa, Machupo)
Can biological agents be spread by air?
Biological agents can be spread by spraying them into the air, person-to-person contact, infecting animals that carry the disease to humans and by contaminating food and water.
What is the most effective way to disperse biological agents?
A line source technique is the most effective dispersal means for biological agents. For example, this may involve a truck or air sprayer moving perpendicular to the wind during an inversion (when air temperature increases with altitude and holds surface air and pollutants down).
Which biological agent inspires the most fear?
There are many ways to implement a biological attack, but these are some of the most feared agents, from least to most threatening: Ebola virus — The virus takes about a week to kill the victim, and it spreads through direct contact.
What are the 4 sources of biological contamination?
There are four main types of contamination: chemical, microbial, physical, and allergenic. All food is at risk of contamination from these four types.
How do you find biological agents?
Current techniques for the detection of biological agents are based on the analysis and/or collection of aerosols. Point samples of soil or aerosol must undergo microscopy and culture methods for a definitive identification and count of the biological agent organisms present.
What are indicators that a biological incident may have occurred?
Biological incidents (indicators) Unusual number of sick and dying – Casualties may occur minutes to hours to days or weeks after an incident has occurred. The time required before symptoms are observed is dependent on the agent used. Unscheduled and unusual spray – Especially outdoors during periods of darkness.
How can you protect against biological warfare?
Available protective equipment include respiratory protective devices, full face protective masks and surgical masks for respiratory protection, battle dress overgarments, protective gloves and overboots for skin protection. Full protection is needed when the agent has not been identified.
What are potentially hazardous biological agents?
Potentially Hazardous Biological Agents Rules for use of microorganisms (including bacteria, viruses, viroids, prions, rickettsia, fungi and parasites), recombinant DNA technologies or human or animal fresh/frozen tissues, blood, or body fluids.
What are examples of biological agents?
Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions—even death.
What are ways in which you can be exposed to biological hazards?
Human bodily matter. Workers in health care may be exposed to biological hazards through contact with human bodily matter, such as blood, tissue, saliva, mucus, urine and faeces.
What are the three types of biological agents that can be weaponized?
- Q fever.
- ricin toxin.
How are biological weapons delivered?
Biological weapons delivery systems can take a variety of forms. Past programmes have constructed missiles, bombs, hand grenades and rockets to deliver biological weapons. A number of programmes also designed spray-tanks to be fitted to aircraft, cars, trucks and boats.
What is the most dreaded of the possible bioterrorism agents?
Toxins represent one of the most dreaded forms of bioterrorism agents and have been successfully employed for bioterrorism/biocrime events.
Which one is an indoor air pollutant of biological origin?
Biological contaminants include bacteria, molds, mildew, viruses, animal dander and cat saliva, house dust, mites, cockroaches, and pollen (see more about Asthma triggers at www.epa.gov/asthma). There are many sources of these pollutants.
What is the best example of biological contamination?
Foodborne illnesses arise from the consumption of foods affected by biological contamination. The most common examples of biological contamination include bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi.
Which of the following could be contaminated in the air?
Mold, dust mites, pet dander and pest droppings or body parts can trigger asthma. Biological contaminants, including molds and pollens can cause allergic reactions for a significant portion of the population. Tuberculosis, measles, staphylococcus infections, Legionella and influenza are known to be transmitted by air.
Can bacterial infections be airborne?
Airborne diseases pass from one person to another when microorganisms — such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses — travel through the air in aerosolized particles. Chickenpox, the common cold, and COVID-19 can all be transmitted in this way. Airborne diseases can transmit through coughs or sneezes, spraying liquid, or dust.
Do bacteria travel through air?
Droplets containing germs are released into the air when a person coughs or sneezes. These tiny droplets can travel as far as 6 feet and can spread germs by landing on surfaces or in another person’s eyes, nose, or mouth.
How far can airborne pathogens travel?
Airborne transmission is traditionally defined as involving the inhalation of infectious aerosols or “droplet nuclei” smaller than 5 μm and mainly at a distance of >1 to 2 m away from the infected individual, and such transmission has been thought to be relevant only for “unusual” diseases.
What is considered a biological exposure?
Potential exposures include needle sticks, animal bites, aerosol exposures, and other incidents potentially resulting in disease from a biological agent.
Which of the following infectious diseases is the most likely biological terrorism agent?
The most likely agents to be involved in bioterrorism attacks include Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium botulinum, Francisella tularensis, and possibly the viral agents of African hemorrhagic fevers.
How are biological agents measured?
Methods based on physical properties and separation are good examples: mass spectrometry and gas or liquid chromatography. Mass spectrometry (MS) is a major analytical technique in which materials to be analyzed are converted into gaseous ions or otherwise characteristic fragments.
What are biological threats?
A biologic threat is an infectious disease with the potential to spread and cause an outbreak. Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by germs (such as bacteria and viruses).
What occurs during an act of biological terrorism?
An act of bioterrorism involves the deliberate release of harmful biological agents to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants. Bioterrorism agents can be spread through the air or put into food or water, and can be extremely difficult to detect.