What are the effects of chemical and biological weapons?

Possible long-term effects of such warfare include: chronic illness caused by exposure to chemical and biological agents; delayed effects in persons directly exposed (causation of cancer, severe damage to the human foetus, and detrimental alterations in the human gene); organic, particularly nervous, damage which lasts …

What are the consequences of biological warfare?

Bioterrorism and other high consequence biological events can result in mass casualties, epidemic illness, healthcare worker illness, environmental contamination, legal issues, and cause unease within the medical community and the community at large.

What happens when biological weapons are used?

Biological weapons (BWs) deliver toxins and microorganisms, such as viruses and bacteria, so as to deliberately inflict disease among people, animals, and agriculture. Biological attacks can result in destruction of crops, temporarily discomforting a small community, killing large numbers of people, or other outcomes.

What do chemical weapons do to the environment?

These chemical and nuclear weapons have been proven to be extremely effective in their task of eradicating the enemy, but their use also results in extreme damage to all organic life in the area affected. Mustard Gas contaminates the soil and can remain highly toxic for years after its initial deployment.

What are the effects of biological agents?

Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions—even death.

How does bioterrorism affect the economy?

The model shows that the economic impact of a bioterrorist attack can range from an estimated $477.7 million per 100,000 persons exposed (brucellosis scenario) to $26.2 billion per 100,000 persons exposed (anthrax scenario).

Are biological weapons ethical?

Using CBW agents comes with many ethical dilemmas and consequential side-effects. Chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons are designed to yield a great number of deaths. As backed by Virtues Ethics, this mass killing caused by CBW is unethical and unjustified.

When was the last time biological weapons were used?

The last known incident of using plague corpses for biological warfare may have occurred in 1710, when Russian forces attacked Swedish troops by flinging plague-infected corpses over the city walls of Reval (Tallinn) (although this is disputed).

What are some examples of biological weapons?

Among the agents deemed likely candidates for biological weapons use are the toxins ricin, staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB), botulinum toxin, and T-2 mycotoxin and the infectious agents responsible for anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, pneumonic plague, tularemia, Q fever, smallpox, glanders, Venezuelan equine …

When was the first biological weapon made?

One of the first recorded uses of biological warfare occurred in 1347, when Mongol forces are reported to have catapulted plague-infested bodies over the walls into the Black Sea port of Caffa (now Feodosiya, Ukraine), at that time a Genoese trade centre in the Crimean Peninsula.

What is the difference between chemical weapons and biological weapons?

Chemical weapons – often referred to as gases – suffocate the victim or cause massive burning. Biological weapons are slower acting, spreading a disease such as anthrax or smallpox through a population before the first signs are noticed.

Is biological weapons a war crime?

In particular, the 1972 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) bans the development, production, acquisition, transfer, stockpiling and use of biological weapons. Therefore, the use of biological agents in armed conflict is a war crime.

Why is chemical warfare bad for the environment?

In event of chemical warfare, nerve gases have very high potency to contaminate water as small quantities can produce toxic symptoms from ingestion. The liquid can be absorbed through intact skin and also through the gut after ingestion of contaminated food.

What are the disadvantages of using chemical weapons?

The weapons induced malaise, fear, and anxiety on everyday life which may remain high for years on after. This can exacerbate pre-existing psychiatric disorders and the risk of mass sociogenic illness.

What damage can chemical weapons do?

Properties of chemical weapons Some chemical agents are highly lethal. For example, nerve agents such as sarin, tabun, soman, and VX can kill almost instantly; a few droplets absorbed through the skin can paralyze and cause death in minutes.

What are the four types of biological weapons?

  • anthrax.
  • botulism.
  • plague.
  • tularemia.
  • smallpox.
  • viral hemorrhagic fevers.

What are the characteristics of biological weapons?

The most potent and desirable bioweapons should possess four main characteristic features: low visibility, high potency, substantial accessibility, and relatively easy delivery. Biological weapons are economically cheaper to produce and can cause mass casualties, and these factors enhance the threat caused by them.

What are the 5 biological agents?

They include bacteria, viruses, fungi (including yeasts and moulds) and internal human parasites (endoparasites). The majority of these agents are harmless however some may have potential to cause ill health.

How does terrorism affect food security?

Terrorists can attack our food supply at several stages along the food chain by: Targeting livestock and crops during production, harvesting, storage or transport (this is called agricultural bioterrorism or agroterrorism.)

What is a biological threat?

A biologic threat is an infectious disease with the potential to spread and cause an outbreak. Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by germs (such as bacteria and viruses).

How can bioterrorism be prevented?

Depending on the situation, wear a face mask to reduce inhaling or spreading germs. If you have been exposed to a biological agent, remove and bag your clothes and personal items. Follow official instructions for disposal of contaminated items. Wash yourself with soap and water and put on clean clothes.

Are biological weapons worse than nuclear weapons?

This explains that biological weapons are much more dangerous than the nuclear weapons. Biological weapons have the power to destroy the massive population of species than nuclear weapons.

Which biological agent inspires the most fear?

There are many ways to implement a biological attack, but these are some of the most feared agents, from least to most threatening: Ebola virus — The virus takes about a week to kill the victim, and it spreads through direct contact.

Are biological weapons cheap?

When compared to the cost of a nuclear weapon programme, biological weapons are extremely cheap. It is estimated that 1 gram of toxin could kill 10 million people. A purified form of botulinum toxin is approximately 3 million times more potent than sarin, a chemical nerve agent.

How can we prevent biological weapons?

In spite of these challenges, the US government has options for increasing the likelihood that biological attacks can be prevented, through maintaining international norms and improving surveillance systems, deterring potential adversaries by demonstrating a strong national response, developing better forensic analysis …

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