Terms in this set (45) They are controlled by the structure and chemistry of the mineral. The properties vary only within the limits that the structure and chemistry of that mineral vary. If the physical properties can be determined, the mineral can be identified.
What determines the chemical properties of a mineral?
Together, the chemical formula (the types and proportions of the chemical elements) and the crystal lattice (the geometry of how the atoms are arranged and bonded together) determine the physical properties of minerals.
What are 3 properties used to identify minerals?
Minerals can be identified by their color, luster, streak, cleavage, hardness, and even by their chemical composition. Using these properties is one way a Geologist defines and identifies what kind of mineral a specimen is.
What are two factors that control the physical properties of minerals?
The physical properties of a mineral are controlled by its chemical composition (which types of atoms it consists of, and in what proportions) and its crystal lattice (the three-dimensional geometric pattern in which those atoms are arranged and bonded together).
What two factors control the properties of a mineral?
A mineral species is defined by two distinct properties: (1) its chemical com- position and (2) its crystal structure. Each mineral has a distinct three- dimensional array of its constituent atoms. This regular geometry affects its physical properties such as cleavage and hardness.
What determines a minerals hardness?
The hardness of minerals is diagnostic because the hardness is determined by the strength of bonds and the structure of the mineral lattice. Hardness is basically the stress required to create and grow extended lattice defects such as micro-fractures, stress twins, and dislocations.
Why do minerals have different properties?
Answer and Explanation: Minerals have different properties because they are made out of different elements. Minerals can be made of silicon, carbon, phosphorus, oxygen, iron, calcium, magnesium, and many other native elements. These native elements have different properties based on how many electrons they have.
What is the property of mineral?
Properties that help geologists identify a mineral in a rock are: color, hardness, luster, crystal forms, density, and cleavage. Crystal form, cleavage, and hardness are determined primarily by the crystal structure at the atomic level. Color and density are determined primarily by the chemical composition.
Which property of a mineral can be determined just by looking at it?
A mineral’s appearance helps identify it. You might begin by looking at the mineral’s color. However, many minerals occur in more than one color, so you would need to examine other properties as well. You might also notice how the mineral reflects light, which determines how shiny or dull it is.
How do we identify minerals?
Minerals can be identified based on a number of properties. The properties most commonly used in identification of a mineral are colour, streak, lustre, hardness, crystal shape, cleavage, specific gravity and habit. Most of these can be assessed relatively easily even when a geologist is out in the field.
What is the basis in classifying minerals?
Since the middle of the 19th century, minerals have been classified on the basis of their chemical composition. Under this scheme, they are divided into classes according to their dominant anion or anionic group (e.g., halides, oxides, and sulfides).
What are the physical properties of minerals controlled by chemical bonding?
Different types of chemical bonds and their varying intensity are directly responsible for some of the physical properties of minerals such as hardness, melting and boiling points, solubility, and conductivity. Chemical bonds also influence such other properties as crystal symmetry and cleavage.
Why do minerals differ in physical and chemical properties?
The atoms are arranged in the same way in every piece of salt. Sometimes two different minerals have the same chemical composition. But they are different minerals because they have different crystal structures.
What physical property can we use to identify the true color of the mineral?
Streak is the color of the mineral in powdered form. Streak shows the true color of the mineral.
What are the 5 defining characteristics of a mineral?
What are the 5 requirements for a mineral?
- Minerals are naturally occurring. They are not made by humans.
- Minerals are inorganic. They have never been alive and are not made up from plants or animals.
- Minerals are solids.
- Minerals have a definite chemical composition.
- Minerals have an ordered atomic arrangement.
What are the physical and chemical properties of minerals?
- Hardness. Mohs’ hardness scale.
- Density and Specific Gravity.
- Crystal form.
How do you tell if a mineral is hard or soft?
A mineral has 5 characteristics, naturally occurring, solid, inorganic, crystalline structure, and the same chemical composition throughout So repeat after me A mineral is Naturally occurring-naturally occurring Inorganic solid-inorganic solid Crystalline structure The same chemical composition throughout.
How do you determine the color of a mineral?
What most strongly influences a minerals hardness and why?
Scrape the talc across the mineral you want to identify. If it leaves a scratch, the mineral is softer than talc. If it doesn’t, the mineral is harder than talc. Continue doing this with the harder standard minerals – gypsum, calcite and so on.
What do all minerals have in common?
What most strongly influences a mineral’s hardness? the strength of a minerals chemical bonds.
On what does the density of a mineral depend?
Minerals always occur in nature, they are solid and are inorganic. They have a crystal structure and each mineral has a unique chemical composition.
What three conditions must be present for minerals to form through natural processes?
The density of a mineral depends on its chemical composition, the type of bonding and its crystal structure.
What defines a mineral?
In order for a mineral crystal to grow, the elements needed to make it must be present in the appropriate proportions, the physical and chemical conditions must be favourable, and there must be sufficient time for the atoms to become arranged.
Which of the following is not a physical property of a mineral?
A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. Common minerals include quartz, feldspar, mica, amphibole, olivine, and calcite.