What factors determine viscosity?

  • Increase in temperature decreases viscosity.
  • Increases in pressure increase viscosity in liquids. In water, it decreases whereas, in gases, it remains the same.

What does viscosity depend on chemistry?

In general, viscosity depends on a fluid’s state, such as its temperature, pressure, and rate of deformation. However, the dependence on some of these properties is negligible in certain cases. For example, the viscosity of a Newtonian fluid does not vary significantly with the rate of deformation.

What 3 factors determine the viscosity of a liquid?

The viscosity of liquids generally depends upon the size, shape and chemical nature of their molecules. It is greater with larger than with smaller molecules; with elongated than with spherical molecules.

How is viscosity measured in chemistry?

Measuring Viscosity where K is the value of a liquid with known viscosity and density such as water. Once the value of K is known, the viscosity can be determined by measuring the amount of time the test liquid flows between the two graduated marks.

What are the 4 factors that affect viscosity?

The viscosity of a material is affected by temperature, pressure, nature of fluid, velocity gradient , etc.

What changes the viscosity of a liquid?

The viscosity decreases with an increase in temperature. Most liquids suffer the exponential relationship (Seeton, 2006) between temperature and viscosity rather than linear form (Fig. 6.1). The more viscous the fluid, the more sensitive it is to the temperature change.

How do you know which molecule has the highest viscosity?

Viscosity is governed by the strength of intermolecular forces and especially by the shapes of the molecules of a liquid. Liquids whose molecules are polar or can form hydrogen bonds are usually more viscous than similar nonpolar substances.

What causes viscosity difference?

Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid towards being deformed when under shear stress. Hence, it is also known as shear viscosity. It is caused by the attractive forces between molecules in close contact, and the friction between molecular chains.

Why do larger molecules have higher viscosity?

Larger molecules also have stronger intermolecular forces, such as London Forces, which connect them to one another with greater power. This inhibits molecular flow, resulting in higher viscosity.

What properties affect viscosity?

Viscosity is influenced by the composition of the crude oil, the temperature, dissolved gas content, and the pressure. As temperature increases, the viscosity will decrease. As a result, viscosity measurements are always reported with the temperature at which the measurement is made.

Does concentration affect viscosity?

When the solid concentration increases, the viscosity increases because of the increase in hydrogen bonding with hydroxyl groups and the distortion in the velocity pattern of the liquid by hydrated molecules of the solute.

What is viscosity and how is it measured?

Viscosity is the measure of a substance’s resistance to motion under an applied force. The formula for measuring viscosity is fairly simple: viscosity = shear stress / shear rate. The result is typically expressed in centipoise (cP), which is the equivalent of 1 mPa s (millipascal second).

How do you test the viscosity of a liquid?

To measure viscosity, fill a graduated cylinder with the liquid to be measured and mark the liquid’s positions at the top and bottom of the cylinder. Drop a marble into the liquid and start a stopwatch, then record the time it takes for the ball to drop between the marks.

How does viscosity vary with temperature and pressure?

Solution : Viscosity of liquids decreases with increase of temperature. In case of water, viscosity decreases with increase of pressure. But in other liquids, viscosity increases with increase of pressure.

Does viscosity depend on temperature?

The viscosity of liquids decreases rapidly with an increase in temperature, and the viscosity of gases increases with an increase in temperature. Thus, upon heating, liquids flow more easily, whereas gases flow more sluggishly.

Is viscosity dependent on temperature?

Viscosity depends strongly on temperature. In liquids it usually decreases with increasing temperature, whereas, in most gases, viscosity increases with increasing temperature.

Why do some liquids have a higher viscosity?

Why are some liquids more viscous than others? Large, bumpy molecules create more friction than small, smooth molecules Viscosity is determined in large part by the shape of the molecules in a liquid.

How do you know which Substance has the lowest viscosity?

Viscosity is measured using a viscometer. Measured values span several orders of magnitude. Of all fluids, gases have the lowest viscosities, and thick liquids have the highest.

How does mass affect viscosity?

For large organic molecules formed by combining a number of smaller molecules such as plastics, viscosity is generally higher for polymers with higher molecular weights, where bigger molecules lead to higher viscosity.

How does particle size affect viscosity?

Increasing Particle Size Decreases Viscosity The viscosity of a material increases only slightly if there is an increase in its particle size, because any relative increase in the particle’s effective hydrodynamic size caused by surface charge or adsorption layers is trivial.

Does viscosity depend on density?

In fluid dynamics, viscosity is the parameter to measure the thickness or thinness of any given fluid. Density is the measure of spaces between two particles in a given fluid. Viscosity and density are the characteristics of a fluid, but there is no direct relation between viscosity and density.

Does higher temperature mean lower viscosity?

The increase in temperature causes the kinetic or thermal energy to increase and the molecules become more mobile. The attractive binding energy is reduced and therefore the viscosity is reduced.

Why does viscosity increase when temperature decreases?

Viscosity vs Temperature for liquid The intermolecular attraction is strong. When temperature increases the energy level of liquid molecules increases and the distance between the molecule increases. It causes a decrease in intermolecular attraction between them, which reduce viscosity.

Which liquid has highest viscosity?

Glycol has maximum viscosity because it has two −OH groups and there is greater intermolecular H−bonding in comparison to water and methanol. Kerosene is a mixture of hydrocarbons.

What molecules have the highest viscosity?

The molecule with the MOST hydroxyl groups, ethylene glycol, has the HIGHEST viscosity.

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