What is an isotope in biology?

(I-soh-tope) A form of a chemical element in which the atoms have the same number of protons (part of the nucleus of an atom) but with a different number of neutrons (part of the nucleus of an atom). For example, carbon 12, carbon 13, and carbon 14 are isotopes of carbon.

What are common isotopes discussed in biology?

Isotopes are different forms of the same element that have the same number of protons, but a different number of neutrons. Some elements, such as carbon, potassium, and uranium, have naturally occurring isotopes. Carbon-12, the most common isotope of carbon, contains six protons and six neutrons.

How isotopes can be used in biological research and medicine?

Radioisotopes are an essential part of medical diagnostic procedures. In combination with imaging devices which register the gamma rays emitted from within, they can be used for imaging to study the dynamic processes taking place in various parts of the body.

What are the 5 uses for isotopes?

What are the five applications of isotopes? Radioactive isotopes have applications in agriculture, food processing, pest control, archaeology, and medicine.

Why are radioactive isotopes used in biology?

Radioisotope is used for biological labelling of cells or entities for identification or tracing specific molecules in an organism. S 35 P 32 and I 125 are widely used radioisotopes used for labelling [2]. Radioactive carbon-14 decay could be used to estimate the age of organic materials.

What is the importance of isotopes?

Isotopes have unique properties, and these properties make them useful in diagnostics and treatment applications. They are important in nuclear medicine, oil and gas exploration, basic research, and national security.

What are isotopes give its two applications?

  • An isotope of Uranium (i.e. Uranium-235) is used as a fuel in a nuclear reactor.
  • An isotope of cobalt (i.e. cobalt-60) is used in the treatment of cancer.
  • An isotope of iodine (i.e. iodine-131) is used in the treatment of goiter.

What are isotopes give examples?

The definition of an isotope is an element with similar chemical make-up and the same atomic number, but different atomic weights to another or others. An example of an isotope is Carbon 12 to Carbon 13.

How are isotopes used in scientific research?

Radioactive isotopes have many useful applications. In medicine, for example, cobalt-60 is extensively employed as a radiation source to arrest the development of cancer. Other radioactive isotopes are used as tracers for diagnostic purposes as well as in research on metabolic processes.

How are isotopes used in agriculture?

Fertilizers labelled with radioactive isotopes such as phosphorus-32 or with stable isotopes such as nitrogen-15 provide a means of determining how much of the fertilizer is taken up by the plant and how much is lost to the environment.

Where are isotopes used?

Different chemical forms are used for brain, bone, liver, spleen and kidney imaging and also for blood flow studies. Used to locate leaks in industrial pipe lines…and in oil well studies. Used in nuclear medicine for nuclear cardiology and tumor detection. Used to study bone formation and metabolism.

Which isotope is used in treating leukemia?

A radioactive form of the element phosphorus. It is used in the laboratory to label DNA and proteins. It has also been used to treat a blood disorder called polycythemia vera and certain types of leukemia, but it is not commonly used anymore.

How is radioisotopes used in medicine?

Radioisotopes in medicine. Nuclear medicine uses small amounts of radiation to provide information about a person’s body and the functioning of specific organs, ongoing biological processes, or the disease state of a specific illness. In most cases the information is used by physicians to make an accurate diagnosis.

How does radioactivity relate to biology?

Radioactivity is generally used in life sciences for highly sensitive and direct measurements of biological phenomena, and for visualizing the location of biomolecules radiolabelled with a radioisotope.

Are isotopes beneficial or harmful to living organisms?

Radioactive isotopes can be dangerous to living things. They can also cause damage to equipment such as electronics. Radioactive isotopes are not always dangerous, though. Some only give off tiny amounts of radiation.

What is isotopes very short answer?

An isotope is one of two or more species of atoms of a chemical element with the same atomic number and position in the periodic table and nearly identical chemical behavior but with different atomic masses and physical properties. Every chemical element has one or more isotopes.

How are isotopes used in nutrition?

In nutrition, stable isotopes can be used to measure the amount of water or other nutrients in the body or the amount of an ingested nutrient that is absorbed and metabolised or excreted. They can be applied to determine the rate of absorption, utilisation or synthesis of proteins, fats or carbohydrates.

How are isotopes used in pest control?

Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions.

How are isotopes used in industry?

Radioisotopes are used by manufacturers as tracers to monitor fluid flow and filtration, detect leaks, and gauge engine wear and corrosion of process equipment. Small concentrations of short-lived isotopes can be detected whilst no residues remain in the environment.

Who discovered isotope?

The existence of isotopes was first suggested in 1913 by the radiochemist Frederick Soddy, based on studies of radioactive decay chains that indicated about 40 different species referred to as radioelements (i.e. radioactive elements) between uranium and lead, although the periodic table only allowed for 11 elements …

Which isotope is used to determine the age of fossils?

Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon which is used for carbon dating fossils. This allows estimation for carbon-based materials originated from living organisms.

Which isotope is used in the treatment of goitre?

characteristics of iodine …exceptionally useful radioactive isotope is iodine-131, which has a half-life of eight days. It is employed in medicine to monitor thyroid gland functioning, to treat goitre and thyroid cancer, and to locate tumours of the brain and of the liver.

Which isotope is used to detect tumors?

Abstract. By tests using radioactive iodine combined with diiodofluorescein, the site of tumors was correctly determined in 61 per cent of 39 cases of tumors of the cerebral hemispheres.

What is radioactive in biology?

As its name implies, radioactivity is the act of emitting radiation spontaneously. This is done by an atomic nucleus that, for some reason, is unstable; it “wants” to give up some energy in order to shift to a more stable configuration.

What are the types of radiation biology?

There are two types of ionizing radiation: nonparticulate (gamma and X rays) and particulate (alpha and beta particles, neutrons and protons). Both forms can transfer energy into a substance. If the energy is high enough, the incoming radiation may eject electrons from atoms along its path through the material.

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