A cloud point refers to the temperature at which a solution of a surfactant begins to agglomerate on a molecular level, generating a cloudy physical appearance. Cloud point temperatures are important for liquid fuels and other petroleum-based substances.
What is cloud point of a surfactant?
The cloud point of a non-ionic surfactant or glycol solution is the temperature at which the dissolution of solids is no longer complete, and the mixture starts to phase separate and two phases appear, thus becoming cloudy .
What is cloud point of water?
The cloud point is analogous to the ‘dew point’ at which a gas-liquid phase transition called condensation occurs in water vapour (humid air) to form liquid water (dew or clouds).
Why are cloud points important?
Cloud point is an important quality specification for diesel fuels. This is an indicator of the tendency of a fuel to form wax crystals when cold. These crystals can clog the atomizer that injects fuel into the combustion chamber of a diesel engine.
What is pour point and cloud point?
The Pour Point Tells The Temperature Below Which Oil Cannot Be Used As Lubricant. Cloud Point Indicates The Tendency Of Oil To Plug Filters Or Small Orifices At Cold Operating Temperature. So, Cloud And Pour Point Also Tells Us The Suitability Of Lubricating Oils In Cold Condition.
What is cloud and pour point test?
Cloud Point is the lowest temperature at which a liquid specimen becomes cloudy and the components within start to precipitate hydrocarbon crystals upon cooling2. Pour Point measures the lowest temperature at which a product can continue to flow, without stirring3.
What is meant by pour point?
Pour point is defined as the lowest temperature at which the test fluid can be poured under the prescribed test conditions. It is one of the properties that determine the low temperature fluidity of a lubricating oil.
What is craft and cloud point?
Krafft Point This is the temperature below which the surfactant is, basically, a useless solid. To be more scientific, it is the temperature at which the solubility is equal to the CMC, so below that temperature you cannot obtain micelles so much of the interesting stuff that occurs with surfactants cannot happen.
What is surfactant in chemistry?
surfactant, also called surface-active agent, substance such as a detergent that, when added to a liquid, reduces its surface tension, thereby increasing its spreading and wetting properties.
What freezing point means?
Medical Definition of freezing point : the temperature at which a liquid solidifies specifically : the temperature at which the liquid and solid states of the substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure : melting point the freezing point of water is 0° Celsius or 32° Fahrenheit.
Is cloud point a physical property?
Cloud point and pour point are important physical properties of any liquid fuel.
What is cloud point in simple words?
Cloud point is the temperature at which wax (paraffin) begins to separate when oil chilled to a low temperature, and it serves as an important indicator of practical performance in automotive applications in low temperatures.
How are point clouds generated?
To generate a point cloud with photogrammetry, you would cameras to capture the space from all angles, and then process those images with specialized software to reconstruct the space in 3D. If you plan to use drones to capture a point cloud of a building, chances are that you will use photogrammetry.
What is the difference between pour point and freezing point?
The pour point is the lowest temperature at which the oil still fl ows. The solidifying point is the temperature at which the oil “solidifi es”. It is the point where the cooled oil no longer fl ows under the infl uence of gravity. The solidifying point is usually 3 to 5°C lower than the pour point.
How is pour point measured?
What are factors affecting pour point and cloud point?
Since viscosity directly affects cloud and pour point, it is essential to state that the higher the density, specific gravity and viscosity of crude oil sample, the more its tendency towards reaching its cloud and pour point as shown in Fig.
How do you do a cloud and pour point test?
What is pour point of a solvent?
After preliminary heating, the oil samples are cooled and examined at intervals of 3 °C for checking the flow characteristics. Therefore, the lowest temperature at which movement of the sample is observed is reported as its pour point.
What is Kraft temperature and CMC?
Kraft temperature is defined as the minimum temperature to form micelles. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) is defined as the concentration of surfactants above which micelles form and all additional surfactants added to the system go to micelles. Was this answer helpful?
What is a craft temperature?
Krafft temperature is defined as the minimum temperature from which the micelle formation takes place. It is named after German chemist Friedrich Krafft. It has been found that solubility at the Krafft point is nearly equal to critical micelle concentration (CMC).
How do I reduce cloud points?
All the additives used showed significant reductions of pour point and cloud point for palm oil biodiesel. The biggest reduction of pour point was about 7.5 °C by adding 1% of DHFA, while the biggest reduction of the cloud point was about 10.5 °C by the addition of 1% DHFA + 1% polyester prepolymer  . …
What are the 4 types of surfactants?
- Anionic Surfactants. Anionic surfactants have a negative charge on their hydrophilic end.
- Nonionic Surfactants. Nonionic surfactants are neutral, they do not have any charge on their hydrophilic end.
- Cationic Surfactants.
- Amphoteric Surfactants.
What is HLB value?
Hydrophilic–lipophilic balance (HLB) is the balance of the size and strength of the hydrophilic and lipophilic moieties of a surfactant molecule. The HLB scale ranges from 0 to 20. In the range of 3.5 to 6.0, surfactants are more suitable for use in W/O emulsions.
Why soap is a surfactant?
Soaps and detergents are made from long molecules that contain a head and tail. These molecules are called surfactants; the diagram below represents a surfactant molecule. The head of the molecule is attracted to water (hydrophilic) and the tail is attracted to grease and dirt (hydrophobic).
What temp is freezing point?
32°F (0°C). Share that the temperature at which fresh water freezes is called the freezing point. The freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid turns to a solid. The freezing point at which water — a liquid — turns to ice — a solid — is 32°F (0°C).