The DHS Countering Weapons of Mass Destruction Office (CWMD) works to prevent attacks against the United States using a weapon of mass destruction (WMD) through timely, responsive support to operational partners.
How does Radiation Portal monitor work?
How do they work? As the name suggests, Radiation Portal Monitors are set up like portals that any vehicle transporting goods has to pass through to see whether it is cleared of hazardous materials or not. They are set up in panels on both sides of the roads and scan the vehicles as they pass through them.
What is a nuclear agent?
Nuclear agents are radioactive material generated from nuclear fission or fusion, such as those produced by detonation of a nuclear weapon or releases from damaged nuclear power plants.
What are the two general types of radiation detection devices?
The Geiger counter is capable of detecting which of the following type(s) of radiation? X ray, gamma rays, & beta particles; Geiger Mueller counters are used to detect low levels of radioactivity.
What are the 3 major types of radiation detectors?
There are three different main types of radiation detectors. These are detectors based on gas ionization, scintillation detectors, and semiconductor detectors. Detectors based on gas ionization are the ionization chamber, proportional counter, and Geiger–Müller counter.
What are the four types of weapons of mass destruction?
A weapon of mass destruction is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological, or other device that is intended to harm a large number of people. The Department of Homeland Security works every day to prevent terrorists and other threat actors from using these weapons to harm Americans.
Which WMD agent is easiest to obtain?
Chemical warfare agents are among the easiest WMD to produce. The toxicity of chemical agents falls generally between that of the more deadly biological agents and that of conventional weapons.
What is the BioWatch program?
Established in 2003, the DHS BioWatch Program provides early warning of a bioterrorist attack in more than 30 major metropolitan areas across the country. This early warning helps decision makers plan an effective, coordinated, and rapid response.
Is radiation biological or chemical?
Radiation is an example of a physical carcinogenic, while cigarettes are an example of a chemical cancer causing agent. Viruses are examples of biological carcinogenic agents.
What is the difference between chemical biological and nuclear weapons?
Unlike nuclear weapons, which require rare materials and complex engineering, biological and chemical weapons can be developed at a comparatively low cost, placing them within the reach of most or all states as well as organized non-state actors. Chemical and biological weapons carry various levels of risk.
What is chemical biological radiological?
CBRNE is an acronym for Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and high yield Explosives. These types of weapons have the ability to create both mass casualties as well as mass disruption of society. Emergency responders are taught how to recognize and mitigate attacks from such weapons.
What do radiation detectors detect?
Most of these devices detect beta and gamma radiation only. However, some models can detect alpha, beta, gamma, and/or neutron radiation emitted from radioactive materials. One particular meter, known as a teletector, is specifically designed to detect gamma and x-ray radiation.
What type of radiation is most damaging to human cells?
Gamma rays are the most harmful external hazard. Beta particles can partially penetrate skin, causing “beta burns”. Alpha particles cannot penetrate intact skin.
Which technique can be used for detection of radioactivity?
Detecting radiation is achieved through the use of a variety of instruments. The most common type of radiation detector is a Geiger-Mueller (GM) tube, also called a Geiger counter.
Which radiation is hardest to detect?
Some beta emitters, however, produce very low-energy, poorly penetrating radiation that may be difficult or impossible to detect. Examples of these difficult-to-detect beta emitters are hydrogen-3 (tritium), carbon-14, and sulfur-35. Clothing provides some protection against beta radiation.
How do you test for radiation in your home?
Geiger Counter, with Geiger-Mueller (GM) Tube or Probe—A GM tube is a gas-filled device that, when a high voltage is applied, creates an electrical pulse when radiation interacts with the wall or gas in the tube. These pulses are converted to a reading on the instrument meter.
How do you get tested for radiation exposure?
A device such as a Geiger counter can be used to survey people to determine the body location of radioactive particles. Type of radiation. A part of the larger emergency response to a radioactive accident or attack would include identifying the type of radiation exposure.
Which weapon can destroy the world?
Nuclear weapons are the most dangerous weapons on earth. One can destroy a whole city, potentially killing millions, and jeopardizing the natural environment and lives of future generations through its long-term catastrophic effects.
What country has the most weapons of mass destruction?
- Russia. Russia has 6,255 nuclear warheads.
- United States. The United States has 5,550 nuclear weapons.
- China. China is next with allegedly 350 nuclear weapons and they are still making more.
- France. France has about 290 nuclear weapons.
What is considered a biological weapon?
A biological weapon is generally composed of a biological agent or toxin (bacteria, mycoplasma, rickettsiae, viruses, yeasts, fungi), additives to assist with dissemination and stability, and a delivery system.
What is the most common chemical weapon?
- Description. Mustard agents are the most widely known of the blister agents and the most common.
- Effects. Mustard also damages eyes and airways after contact, and the gastrointestinal tract and bone marrow (where immune system cells are produced) after high doses are absorbed.
What are the 3 types of chemical weapons?
Major categories of CWAs include the following: Nerve agents (such as sarin, soman, cyclohexylsarin, tabun, VX) Vesicating or blistering agents (such as mustards, lewisite) Choking agents or lung toxicants (such as chlorine, phosgene, diphosgene)
How can you protect yourself from chemical warfare?
The first and most important line of defense against chemical agents is the individual protection provided by gas masks and protective clothing and the collective protection of combat vehicles and mobile or fixed shelters.
What are BioWatch sensors?
BioWatch is an early warning system for detection of certain pathogens that have been intentionally released into the air. The decision to field a “network of sensors to detect biological attack” was announced in January 2003 in the State of the Union address (The White House, 2003).
Which federal agency should play the most significant role during a bioterrorism emergency and why?
HHS’ Office of Emergency Preparedness also has important responsibilities pertinent to bioterrorism response, notably the management of the Metropolitan Medical Response System (MMRS) which is part of the Federal government’s overall Domestic Preparedness Program.