Downstream. 1. (Science: molecular biology) portions of dna or rna that are more remote from the initiation sites and that will therefore be translated or transcribed later. 2. Shorthand term for things that happen at a late stage in a sequence of reactions.
What is meant by upstream and downstream in transcription?
The upstream application process is directed toward the upper 5′ end of the DNA or RNA strand. The downstream process is pointed to the lower portion of the DNA or RNA strand which is 3′ long. These represent a part of the transcription process by which DNA is copied into RNA by polymerase enzymes.
What is downstream in molecular biology?
It is the region of DNA that is towards the 5′ end. It is the region of DNA that is towards the 3′ end.
What is downstream in DNA?
The DNA region from +1 point towards the 3′ end of the coding strand is known as downstream DNA. In other words, downstream of the gene is from the transcription initiation site towards the 5′ end of the template strand.
What is the difference between upstream and downstream?
Upstream refers to the material inputs needed for production, while downstream is the opposite end, where products get produced and distributed.
What does mean downstream?
Definition of downstream 1 : in the direction of or nearer to the mouth of a stream floating downstream located two miles downstream. 2 : in or toward the latter stages of a usually industrial process or the stages (such as marketing) after manufacture improving profits downstream downstream products.
What is the difference between upstream process and downstream process in protein production?
The key difference between upstream and downstream bioprocessing is that upstream bioprocessing involves screening and identification of microorganisms, media preparation, multiplication of microbes inside a bioreactor, and incubation, while downstream bioprocessing involves extraction, purification and packaging of …
Is promoter upstream or downstream?
A promoter is a region of DNA that generally is located upstream of a gene and facilitates and regulates its transcription.
What are downstream genes?
Genes whose expression is subordinate to developmental control genes (q.v.). Downstream genes are switched on or off at various times and in different tissues by transcription factors (q.v.) encoded by upstream regulatory genes.
What is upstream or downstream in molecular biology?
The main difference between upstream and downstream DNA is that the upstream DNA is the DNA which occurs towards the 5′ end from a particular point on the DNA strand whereas the downstream DNA is the DNA which occurs towards the 3′ end.
What is downstream in Mrna?
Downstream (or 3′ to) is in the direction of transcription (or translation) whereas upstream (5′ to) is in the direction from which the polymerase (or ribosome) has come.
Which is downstream process?
Downstream processing refers to the recovery and the purification of biosynthetic products, particularly pharmaceuticals, from natural sources such as animal tissue, plant tissue or fermentation broth, including the recycling of salvageable components as well as the proper treatment and disposal of waste.
What are upstream elements?
The core upstream element, or CUE, is a hexamer located 10 to 30 nucleotides upstream of the polyadenylation cleavage site. In ~53% of human pre-mRNAs the sequence of the CUE is AAUAAA.
What is upstream and downstream example?
Upstream activities include exploration, drilling, and extraction. Upstream is followed by midstream (transportation of crude oil) and downstream (refining and distribution) phases. Today many large oil companies are integrated, in that they maintain upstream, midstream, and downstream units.
What is called upstream?
Definition of upstream 1 : in the direction opposite to the flow of a stream. 2 : in or to a position within the production stream closer to manufacturing processes make most of its money upstream, selling cheap crude … to refineries— John Quirt.
What are upstream and downstream activities?
Often, different stages within the supply chain are referred to as upstream or downstream. Upstream operations are those in which the materials flow into the organization. Downstream operations are those in which materials (mostly in the form of finished products) flow away from the organization to the customers.
What is upstream system?
An upstream system is any system that sends data to the Collaboration Server system. A downstream system is a system that receives data from the Collaboration Server system. You can load data into the Collaboration Server system at regular intervals (weekly, daily, or hourly) from an upstream system.
What is downstream system?
A downstream system is a system that receives data from the Product Master Server system. You can load data into the Product Master Server system at regular intervals (weekly, daily, or hourly) from an upstream system.
What is downstream processing in biotechnology?
Downstream processing (DSP) describes the series of operations required to take biological materials, such as cells, tissue culture fluid, or plant tissues, and derive from them a pure and homogeneous protein product.
What is upstream and downstream in cell culture?
Upstream processes are those in which biological materials are either obtained from an outside source or inoculated and grown in culture, under controlled conditions, to manufacture certain types of products. Downstream processes are those in which the products are harvested, tested, purified and packaged.
What is upstream processing in microbiology?
Upstream processing comprises tasks in the initial stages of the fermentation process in biotechnology. This includes all steps related to the development of microorganisms, nutrient preparation, cell culture, cell separation and harvesting.
What is upstream and downstream in vaccine production?
General outline for Vaccine manufacturing with upstream and downstream processing, upstream processing includes cell growth, virus production, and downstream processing deals with clarification, purification, and recovery of viruses.
What is upstream of a promoter?
A promoter, as related to genomics, is a region of DNA upstream of a gene where relevant proteins (such as RNA polymerase and transcription factors) bind to initiate transcription of that gene. The resulting transcription produces an RNA molecule (such as mRNA).
Are promoters always upstream?
Summary. Promoters are about 100-1000 base pairs long and are adjacent and typically upstream (5′) of the sense or coding strand of the transcribed gene. The coding strand is the DNA strand that encodes codons and whose sequence corresponds to the mRNA transcript produced.
Can the promoter be downstream?
In molecular biology, a downstream promoter element (DPE) is a core promoter element. Like all core promoters, the DPE plays an important role in the initiation of gene transcription by RNA polymerase II.