Molecular biology is the branch of biology that studies the molecular basis of biological activity. Living things are made of chemicals just as non-living things are, so a molecular biologist studies how molecules interact with one another in living organisms to perform the functions of life.
What is molecular biology and its scope?
Molecular biology pertains to the study of living systems at the molecular level, especially DNA and RNA, and provides a background for further work in the rapidly expanding areas of genomics, cell biology, biotechnology, microbiology, diagnostics, and therapeutics.
What are the fundamentals of molecular biology?
The basic concepts of the fundamental units of life, encompassing DNA replication, transcription, and gene regulation, are discussed here. We also describe other vital biological phenomena such as transformation, conjugation, transduction, recombination, and horizontal gene transfer.
What is the importance of molecular biology?
Molecular biology also plays a critical role in the understanding of structures, functions, and internal controls within individual cells, all of which can be used to efficiently target new drugs, diagnose disease, and better understand cell physiology.
What is types of molecular biology?
The more commonly used molecular biology techniques include- Polymerase Chain Reaction, Electrophoresis, Restriction Digestion, Blotting, Cloning, etc. The important topics covered in this subject are nucleic acids – DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in cells.
What are the 4 types of biological molecules?
Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast array of functions. The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
What are some examples of molecular biology?
- Comparative Genomics. This is the study of human genetics by comparisons with model organisms such as mice, the fruit fly and the bacterium E.
- DNA Forensics.
- Functional Genomics.
- Gene Therapy.
- Molecular Genetics.
What are the applications of molecular biology?
Ultimately, molecular biology applications are expected to be a mainstay in the manufacture of chemicals, energy, medical, consumer products, agriculture and food, industry, cosmetics and environmental technologies.
Who is known as the father of molecular biology?
Dr. Max Perutz, whose success in elucidating the structure of the hemoglobin molecule helped give birth to the field of molecular biology and brought him the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1962, died on Wednesday at a hospital near his home in Cambridge, England. He was 87.
What are molecular biology techniques?
Molecular biology techniques are common methods used in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics and biophysics which generally involve manipulation and analysis of DNA, RNA, protein, and lipid.
What 4 fields do molecular biologists work in?
Molecular biologists can work with DNA and RNA from humans, plants, animals and other organisms while using their knowledge of chemistry, physiology, genetics, physics and biology in their work.
What is the difference between molecular biology and biochemistry?
As students and working professionals, molecular biologists work with DNA, RNA and various proteins to understand how cells act and react. They’re also interested in what happens when cells mutate. On the other hand, biochemists research the chemistry of biological molecules more broadly.
What is the most important biological molecule?
Nucleic acids are the most important macromolecules for the continuity of life. They carry the genetic blueprint of a cell and carry instructions for the functioning of the cell.
Is DNA molecular biology?
The field of molecular biology is focused especially on nucleic acids (e.g., DNA and RNA) and proteins—macromolecules that are essential to life processes—and how these molecules interact and behave within cells.
What is the structure of biological molecules?
These complex molecules are typically made up of chains and rings that contain hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms, as well as carbon atoms. These molecules may consist of anywhere from 10 to millions of atoms linked together in specific arrays.
When did molecular biology start?
Molecular biology originated in the 1930s and 1940s, and picked up momentum in the 1950s and 1960s. Although its direct predecessor was classical genetics, the emergence of molecular biology represented a convergence of work by geneticists, physicists, and structural chemists.
How molecular biology is used in medicine?
Modern molecular medicine encompasses the utilization of many molecular biological techniques in the analysis of disease, disease genes and disease gene function. The study of disease genes and their function in an unaffected individual has been possible by the development of recombinant DNA and cloning techniques.
What are the disadvantages of molecular biology?
Other disadvantages include a lack of assay sensitivity and specificity, high assay costs, and a level of technical expertise not available in most food-testing laboratories.
What are the 5 biological techniques?
Most important techniques are Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Expression cloning, Gel electrophoresis, Macromolecule blotting and probing, Arrays (DNA array and protein array).
What are molecular tools?
Molecular Biological Tools (MBTs) are analyses used to estimate biodegradation at contaminated sites. They can provide key evidence about contaminant-degrading microorganisms and biodegradation processes at many phases associated with site remediation projects.
Which is better molecular biology or microbiology?
Microbiology is a lot more niche than molecular biology as it dives deeper into the areas of epidemiology and infectious diseases. Focusing on molecular biology can keep your options more open however. It helps if you have a good understanding of where you want to end up (i.e. laboratory work – microbio).
How is PCR used in molecular biology?
PCR is used in molecular biology to make many copies of (amplify) small sections of DNA? or a gene?. Using PCR it is possible to generate thousands to millions of copies of a particular section of DNA from a very small amount of DNA. PCR is a common tool used in medical and biological research labs.
Can a molecular biologist become a doctor?
Yes. Definitely. MD/PhD programs are a great choice for people who decide early that that they want to be physician–scientists and have built the necessary track record of academic success and research experience before they apply.
What are the responsibilities of a molecular biologist?
The primary responsibility of a molecular biologist is to conduct research and experiments at the cellular and molecular level in order to better comprehend the function of a cellular machinery of the life.
Is microbiology and molecular biology the same?
The key difference between Microbiology and molecular biology is that Microbiology is the study of microorganisms whereas Molecular biology is the study of biological activities at molecular level.