What is PEP explain its role in photosynthesis?

PEP carboxylase is the first enzyme of carbon fixation by the C4 or Hatch Slack pathway. It catalyses the addition of CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), thus converting it to oxaloacetic acid (OAA), the 4C acid.

Is PEP an enzyme?

C4 Biochemistry C4 photosynthesis begins with the carboxylation of the three-carbon compound phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) by PEP carboxylase, a cytosolic enzyme that is highly expressed in the M tissue of C4 plants (Figure 2). PEP carboxylation is the only biochemical step common to all C4 plants.

What is PEP in citric acid cycle?

Similar to pyruvate carboxylase, PEP carboxylase replenishes oxaloacetate in the citric acid cycle. At the end of glycolysis, PEP is converted to pyruvate, which is converted to acetyl-coenzyme-A (acetyl-CoA), which enters the citric acid cycle by reacting with oxaloacetate to form citrate.

What is the role of PEP in C4 plants?

Role of PEP Carboxylase in C4 Plants Here, phosphoenolpyruvate or PEP is the primary acceptor of CO2 and oxaloacetic acid (OAA) a C4 acid is the first carbon fixation product. The reaction is catalysed by PEP carboxylase. This occurs in the mesophyll cells. RuBisCO is absent in the mesophyll cells.

What is PEP full form?

The full form of PEP is the Post Exposure Prophylaxis.

Why is PEP high energy?

Answer and Explanation: Phosphoenolpyruvate or PEP is the highest energy compound because it has large negative charges on the phosphate groups that transfer into other organic compounds and releases a lot of free energy more than 7Kcal.

Where exactly the PEP case found?

Note: Essential carboxylating compound, PEPcase in $C_4$ plants is found in cytoplasm of mesophyll cells. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPcase) catalyzes the obsession of carbon dioxide with phosphoenolpyruvate to create oxaloacetate and inorganic phosphate.

When was PEP formed?

In glycolysis PEP is formed by the action of the enzyme enolase on 2-phosphoglyceric acid. Metabolism of PEP to pyruvic acid by pyruvate kinase (PK) generates adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via substrate-level phosphorylation. ATP is one of the major currencies of chemical energy within cells.

What enzyme does PEP inhibit?

PEP, a potent inhibitor of E. coli glucokinase, unlike most eukaryotic hexokinases, can act as a signal molecule controlling glucose uptake and glycolytic flux in cells.

How is PEP converted into pyruvate?

In the canonical glycolysis pathway, the last step is catalyzed by PYK, which irreversibly converts PEP and ADP to pyruvate and ATP. PPDK is found in plants and a variety of microorganisms, catalyzing the reversible conversion of PEP, AMP and PPi to pyruvate, ATP and Pi.

Is PEP reduced to pyruvate?

The PEP is converted to pyruvate by pyruvate kinase (PK) or alternatively converted directly to oxaloacetate (OAA) by Ppc. Pyruvate can be converted to acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) by pyruvate deydrogenase (Pdh); acetyl-CoA is further condensed with OAA into citrate catalyzed by CS and thus enters the TCA cycle (Figure 3).

What is full form of PEP from C4 cycle?

The enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase (PEPC) utilizes bicarbonate ( ) to catalyze the β-carboxylation of PEP, to form the four-carbon acid oxaloacetate (Andreo et al., 1987; Chollet et al., 1996; Lepiniec et al., 2003; Izui et al., 2004).

What is C3 and C4 plants?

C3 plants use the C3 pathway or Calvin cycle for the dark reaction of photosynthesis. C4 plants use the C4 pathway or Hatch-Slack Pathway for the dark reaction of photosynthesis. These plants are cool-season plants, commonly found in cool and wet areas. These plants are warm-season plants, commonly found in dry areas.

What are C3 C4 and CAM plants?

C3 photosynthesis produces a three-carbon compound via the Calvin cycle while C4 photosynthesis makes an intermediate four-carbon compound that splits into a three-carbon compound for the Calvin cycle. Plants that use CAM photosynthesis gather sunlight during the day and fix carbon dioxide molecules at night.

Who needs PEP?

PEP is intended for use by individuals who are HIV-negative or do not know their HIV status who may have been exposed to HIV. Per the CDC’s recommendations, you should think about using PEP if: You think you may have been exposed to HIV during sex (for example, if the condom broke or if you did not use one)

What drugs are used for PEP?

The medication now used for PEP is a single tablet called Truvada and two tablets of raltegravir. Side effects from PEP are likely to be mild ones in the first few days, such as nausea, headaches or tiredness.

Is PEP a sugar?

PEP group translocation, also known as the phosphotransferase system or PTS, is a distinct method used by bacteria for sugar uptake where the source of energy is from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). It is known to be a multicomponent system that always involves enzymes of the plasma membrane and those in the cytoplasm.

Is PEP higher energy than ATP?

After a 5-min infusion of PEP or glucose solution, the ATP concentration was significantly higher in the PEP group than in the glucose group (4.08 +/- 0.58 micromole/g liver vs 2.20 +/- 0.45 micromole/g liver, P

Why is ATP called high energy?

ATP is an excellent energy storage molecule to use as “currency” due to the phosphate groups that link through phosphodiester bonds. These bonds are high energy because of the associated electronegative charges exerting a repelling force between the phosphate groups.

Does plant have pep case?

Hint: Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase or PEPCase is an enzyme that is most commonly found in plants and some bacteria.

Does C4 plants have pep case?

No worries!

What are C4 plants examples?

Examples of C4 plants include corn, sorghum, sugarcane, millet, and switchgrass. However, the C4 anatomical and biochemical adaptations require additional plant energy and resources than C3 photosynthesis, and so in cooler environments, C3 plants are typically more photosynthetically efficient and productive.

How long does PEP stay in your system?

Efavirenz can last in the system for days but the levels will drop over that time. You need to get tested at 4 weeks and 12 weeks after your exposure. The PEP will not effect your 12 week results. So, if they are negative, you do not have HIV.

When should I take PEP?

PEP needs to be taken as soon as possible after you have been exposed, ideally within 2 hours and not later than 72 hours (three days). The sooner PEP is taken, the more likely it is to stop HIV.

Can I get PEP at pharmacy?

You can buy the emergency contraceptive pill from chemists. It is usually also available from GPs, sexual health clinics and A&E departments. However, it is important to let the doctor or pharmacist know if you are taking PEP.

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