What is protein adduct?

Protein adducts are covalent. modifications resulting from reactions between electrophiles and nucleophilic sites in proteins, such as. the N-terminus or the amino acid side chains containing sulfhydryl or amine functionalities.

What is adduct reaction?

An adduct is a product formed at the end of an addition reaction. This is a reaction in which two or more molecules react and combine to form one larger product. This type of reaction can only occur between chemical compounds which have multiple bonds – compounds like alkenes (double bonds) and alkynes (triple bonds).

What does mono adduct mean?

monoadduct (plural monoadducts) (organic chemistry) An adduct formed by the addition of a single molecule of a compound.

Why can a DNA adduct formation cause a mutation?

If not repaired, the DNA adducts can interfere with DNA transcription and replication, and induce mutations. The ability of DNA adducts to induce mutations by site-specific mutagenesis in vitro or as observed in cell studies have revealed different mutational spectra for different types of DNA adducts.

What is another word for adduct?

Find another word for adduct. In this page you can discover 15 synonyms, antonyms, idiomatic expressions, and related words for adduct, like: crosslinking, abduct, tetramer, hapten, ribonuclease, thiol, , dimeric, upregulation, deprotonation and metabolite.

What are acetaldehyde adducts?

Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis.

What does adduct mean in biology?

In biology, an adduct is a complex that forms when a chemical binds to a biological molecule, such as DNA or protein. Source: GreenFacts. More: DNA adducts are altered forms of DNA that occur as the result of exposure to carcinogens (in the case of smokers these would be the carcinogens present in cigarette smoke).

What is DNA adduct formation?

DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde). This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication.

What is an adduct in mass spectrometry?

Here, adduct refers to a version of a parent molecule [M] that is charged due to addition or loss of atoms and electrons resulting in a charged ion, for example, [M + H]+. (2) A study by Huang et al. gives an often-cited list of 44 adducts commonly observed in electrospray ionization mass spectra.

Why adduct is formed?

An adduct ion is formed from a precursor ion and contains all of the constituent atoms of that ion as well as additional atoms or molecules. Adduct ions are often formed in a mass spectrometer ion source.

How are DNA adducts detected?

DNA adducts can be detected in fixed cells and sections of frozen or paraffin fixed tissues in either a semi-quantitative or qualitative manner using immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis.

What does adduct mean in medical terms?

Medical Definition of adduct (Entry 1 of 2) : to draw (as a limb) toward or past the median axis of the body also : to bring together (similar parts) adduct the fingers. Other Words from adduct.

What do adducts do?

DNA adducts are a form of DNA damage caused by covalent attachment of a chemical moiety to DNA. Adducts that are not removed by the cell can cause mutations that may give rise to cancer. They are frequently used as biomarkers for chemical hazard exposure or cancer therapy efficacy.

How is DNA adduct repair?

Small alkylated and oxidized lesions, including those arising from endogenous sources, are excised by the BER pathway which also repairs certain single-ring exocyclic DNA adducts. For certain alkylated bases and etheno adducts, they can be repaired through direct reversal carried out by specialized repair proteins.

What is the significance of DNA adducts in determining if a diet is healthy or not?

DNA adducts have been used widely in order to identify health hazards and to evaluate the dose–response relationship in humans exposed to carcinogens and mutagenic compounds and are considered a biomarker of internal dose.

Is acetaldehyde an alcohol?

When you drink alcohol, your body makes acetaldehyde when it processes the alcohol. The effect of acetaldehyde on your health depends on how much is in your body, how long you were exposed, and how often you were exposed.

What is the meaning acetaldehyde?

Definition of acetaldehyde : a colorless volatile water-soluble liquid aldehyde C2H4O used chiefly in organic synthesis.

Why is acetaldehyde polar?

This means there is uneven distribution of electrons. So that the right end of the acetaldehyde shows more negative than its right end. Thus, due to this uneven distribution of electrons, it acts as polar molecule. Hence, the acetaldehyde is polar in nature.

What is adduction give an example?

For fingers or toes, adduction brings the digits toward the center of the hand or foot. For example, if a person has their fingers spread wide apart, bringing them together would be adduction. Closing arms to the chest or bringing knees together are other examples of adduction.

What is the opposite of abduct?

Adduction, which means to move closer to the median plane of the body, is the opposite of abduction.

What is the meaning of abduction and adduction?

Abduction and adduction are terms that refer to certain body motions or movements. Abduction is the opposite of adduction. With abduction, limbs (arms, legs or fingers) are moved away from your body’s midline. Adduction, however, refers to moving your limbs closer to the midline.

What are DNA adducts quizlet?

What are DNA adducts? DNA adducts are segments of DNA covalently bound to dangerous chemicals. Open segments of DNA are targets for this kind of damage.

What is DNA replication and how does it work?

DNA replication is the process by which a double-stranded DNA molecule is copied to produce two identical DNA molecules. Replication is an essential process because, whenever a cell divides, the two new daughter cells must contain the same genetic information, or DNA, as the parent cell.

What is alkylation of DNA?

DNA alkylation refers to the addition of alkyl groups to specific bases, resulting in alkylation products such as O2‐alkylthymine, O4‐alkylthymine, O6‐methylguanine and O6‐ethylguanine, which cause DNA mutations.

What is Delta mass?

For this filtering, the p-value for each peptide precursor mass is calculated as the delta mass (defined as the difference between the measured mass and the theoretical mass) for each modified peptide against the distribution of the delta masses of all the non-modified peptides (Fig. 2).

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