What is the biology of the Zika virus?

Importance: Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family. Vector-mediated transmission of ZIKV is initiated when a blood-feeding female Aedes mosquito injects the virus into the skin of its mammalian host, followed by infection of permissive cells via specific receptors.

How does the Zika virus work?

The Zika virus is most often spread to a person through the bite of an infected mosquito. If a mosquito bites a person who is already infected with the Zika virus, the virus infects the mosquito. Then, when the infected mosquito bites another person, the virus enters that person’s bloodstream and causes an infection.

How does Zika work at a cellular level?

The genetic material of Zika virus is made of ribonucleic acid (RNA). When the Zika virus infects cells, pieces of the virus RNA, known as subgenomic flavivirus RNAs (or sfRNAs for short), accumulate in the cell. Cells infected with dengue virus, which is closely related to the Zika virus, also accumulate sfRNA.

How does Zika virus replicate its genome?

Replication takes place at the surface of endoplasmic reticulum in cytoplasmic viral factories. A dsRNA genome is synthesized from the genomic ssRNA(+). The dsRNA genome is transcribed/replicated thereby providing viral mRNAs/new ssRNA(+) genomes. Virus assembly occurs at the endoplasmic reticulum.

Which cells does Zika first enter?

ZIKV exhibits preferential infection of neural progenitor cells, leading to cell-cycle arrest, increased apoptosis, and inhibition of NPC differentiation. All of these outcomes following ZIKV infection are associated with delayed development and birth defects, such as microcephaly in the mouse model [30].

What is the structure of the Zika virus?

Zika virions are comprised of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. The virus particles are spherical and small in size (approximately 50 nm in diameter) with an electron-dense core approximately 30 nm in diameter. The virion surface contains envelope protein (E) dimers and membrane (M) proteins in icosahedral-like symmetry.

Can you get Zika from kissing?

Zika has been detected in semen, vaginal fluids, saliva, urine, and breast milk. There is no evidence at present that Zika can be transmitted through saliva during deep kissing.

How do mosquitoes get infected with Zika?

They typically lay eggs in and near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots and vases. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

What type of virus is Zika virus?

Zika virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family and is transmitted to humans by mosquitoes. It is related to other pathogenic vector borne flaviviruses including dengue, West-Nile and Japanese encephalitis viruses but produces a comparatively mild disease in humans.

What part of the body does Zika effect?

Zika virus directly infects brain cells and evades immune system detection, study shows. Summary: The mosquito-borne Zika virus linked to microcephaly and other neurological problems in newborns of affected mothers directly infects the brain progenitor cells destined to become neurons, researchers report in a new study …

How does Zika virus enter the host?

The primary mode of Zika transmission is through mosquitoes in the genus Aedes. In this regard, Zika is similar to related flaviviruses such as dengue, yellow fever, and West Nile virus. When a mosquito eats a blood meal from a person infected with Zika, the virus can infect the cells of the mosquito.

What receptor does Zika virus bind to?

Zika virus entry receptor AXL is a key receptor being responsible for Zika virus entry. The ZIKV permissiveness of human skin fibroblasts was confirmed by the use of a neutralizing antibody and specific RNA silencing.

What protects DNA from viruses?

Adenovirus Core Protein VII Protects the Viral Genome from a DNA Damage Response at Early Times after Infection – PMC. The .

How does Zika affect the immune system?

Zika infection during pregnancy can cause serious birth defects and is associated with other pregnancy problems. Rarely, Zika may cause Guillain-Barré syndrome, an uncommon sickness of the nervous system in which a person’s own immune system damages the nerve cells, causing muscle weakness, and sometimes, paralysis.

Does Zika virus have a protein cap?

A) The 5′-cap of the Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA is methylatedby the viral MTase domain of NS5. Shown is the chemical structure of the methylated 5′ cap on the ZIKV gRNA. B)

Does the Zika virus have a membrane?

Zika virus is shown in cross section at center left. On the outside, it includes envelope protein (red) and membrane protein (magenta) embedded in a lipid membrane (light purple). Inside, the RNA genome (yellow) is associated with capsid proteins (orange).

Is Zika virus naked or enveloped?

ZIKV is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus that is closely related to dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV) (Fajardo et al., 2016; Kruger, 2016).

How long does Zika survive in sperm?

The CDC currently recommends that men who have traveled to a Zika-active region either use condoms or abstain from sex for at least 6 months. But that guideline is based on data showing that genetic traces of Zika virus can be found in semen 180 days after infection.

How long does Zika stay in your system?

Zika virus (ZIKV) has been identified in several body fluids of infected individuals. In most cases, it remained detected in blood from few days to 1 week after the onset of symptoms, and can persist longer in urine and in semen.

How long does the Zika virus stay in you?

Zika is a viral infection that usually causes a mild illness that typically lasts between 2 and 7 days. 80% of people who become infected by Zika virus have no symptoms.

Where does Zika virus thrive?

Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 and is named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika outbreaks have probably occurred in many locations.

Where does Zika virus occur?

Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys. It was later identified in humans in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. Outbreaks of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific.

How do you get rid of Zika virus?

There is no specific treatment for infection with the Zika virus. To help relieve symptoms, get plenty of rest and drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. The over-the-counter (OTC) medication acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) may help relieve joint pain and fever.

How big is a Zika virus particle?

Zika virions are comprised of an envelope and a nucleocapsid. The virus particles are spherical and small in size (approximately 50 nm in diameter) with an electron-dense core approximately 30 nm in diameter. The virion surface contains envelope protein (E) dimers and membrane (M) proteins in icosahedral-like symmetry.

Who are susceptible hosts for Zika?

Nonhuman and human primates are likely the main reservoirs of the virus, and anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) transmission occurs during outbreaks. Perinatal, in utero, and possible sexual and transfusion transmission events have also been reported.

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