What is the chemistry of explosion?

TNT is composed of the elements carbon, oxygen and nitrogen. When TNT explodes it forms several covalent gases: CO, CO2 and N2 that are very stable. The production of these very low energy (stable) bonds means that a great deal of energy is released. It should be noted that most explosives contain these same elements.

What is the chemical formula of a bomb?

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene is a yellow, odorless solid that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is commonly known as TNT and is an explosive used in military shells, bombs, and grenades, in industrial uses, and in underwater blasting.

What materials are used in bombs?

many commonly available materials, such as fertilizer, gunpowder, and hydrogen peroxide, can be used as explosive materials in IEDs (see table ). Explosives must contain a fuel and an oxidizer, which provides the oxygen needed to sustain the reaction.

Is an explosive a chemical?

The OSHA Laboratory Standard defines an explosive as a chemical that causes a sudden, almost instantaneous release of pressure, gas, and heat when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, or high temperature.

What chemical can cause explosion?

Peroxides (inorganic), when mixed with combustible materials, barium, sodium, and potassium, form explosives that ignite easily. Phosphorus (P), both red and white, forms explosive mixtures with oxidizing agents. White (also called yellow) P should be stored under water, in glass, because it is pyrophoric.

How does dynamite work chemically?

Nobel developed dynamite in the 1860s by combining liquid nitroglycerin with an inert porous material such as charcoal or diatomaceous earth. Nitroglycerin plasticizes collodion (a form of nitrocellulose) to form blasting gelatin, a very powerful explosive.

What is the most explosive chemical?

Azidoazide azide is the most explosive chemical compound ever created. It is part of a class of chemicals known as high-nitrogen energetic materials, and it gets its “bang” from the 14 nitrogen atoms that compose it in a loosely bound state. This material is both highly reactive and highly explosive.

What is TNT chemistry?

❖ TNT is a yellow, odorless solid that does not occur naturally in the environment. It is made by combining toluene with a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids (ATSDR 1995). ❖ It is a highly explosive, single-ring nitroaromatic compound that is a crystalline solid at room temperature (CRREL 2006).

How do bombs work chemistry?

Modern nuclear weapons work by combining chemical explosives, nuclear fission, and nuclear fusion. The explosives compress nuclear material, causing fission; the fission releases massive amounts of energy in the form of X-rays, which create the high temperature and pressure needed to ignite fusion.

What is C4 made of?

C4 was used during the Vietnam War as part of demolition blocks; today, it is commonly used in both military and civilian settings for demolition and flares. C4 is composed of RDX (91%), dioctyl sebacate (5.3%), polyisobutylene (2.1%), and mineral/motor oil (1.6%) [1].

What is dirty bomb made of?

A dirty bomb is a mix of explosives, such as dynamite, with radioactive powder or pellets. When the dynamite or other explosives are set off, the blast carries radioactive material into the surrounding area.

Has a dirty bomb ever been used?

There have been no recorded instances of a successful dirty bomb attack. Scattering radioactive material as a weapon was first suggested in 1941 by a committee of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences led by physicist Arthur Holly Compton.

What are the 3 types of explosives?

explosive, any substance or device that can be made to produce a volume of rapidly expanding gas in an extremely brief period. There are three fundamental types: mechanical, nuclear, and chemical. A mechanical explosive is one that depends on a physical reaction, such as overloading a container with compressed air.

Can you make C-4?

To make C-4 blocks, explosives manufacturers take RDX in powder form and mix it with water to form a slurry. They then add the binder material, dissolved in a solvent, and mix the materials with an agitator. They remove the solvent through distillation, and remove the water through drying and filtering.

What causes an explosion?

An explosion is a rapid expansion of gases. Many explosions occur when gases are exposed to a source of heat- such as fire, sparks, even static elec- tricity-or an increase in pressure. Explosions can also be caused by chemical reactions.

How do explosives work?

A general theory of explosives is that the detonation of the explosives charge causes a high-velocity shock wave and a tremendous release of gas. The shock wave cracks and crushes the rock near the explosives and creates thousands of cracks in the rock. These cracks are then filled with the expanding gases.

Does dynamite explode if shot?

It depends on the explosive. Some bomb materials are highly sensitive to impact; if you shoot a gun at a stick of dynamite, for example, there’s a good chance you’ll set it off. Others are less susceptible to gunfire.

Is C-4 stronger than TNT?

C4 explosives have more complete destructive power compared to TNT and the number of effective explosives required to destroy the concrete with the strength of fc = 229.31 kg / cm2 is 122 g.

What is the fastest explosion?

Octanitrocubane has a detonation velocity of 10,100 m/s, making it the fastest known explosive.

What does TNT smell like?

Other objects and even some medical conditions are also associated with distinctive odors. For example, the nitroglycerin fumes in dynamite can smell like banana, while food infected with salmonella bacteria can release hydrogen sulfide gas that smells like rotten eggs.

Is TNT or dynamite more powerful?

It’s the small explosion of the blasting cap that is required to cause the nitroglycerin to explode. You may see some explosives labeled “TNT” that look like dynamite. TNT stands for trinitrotoluene, which is also an explosive but quite different from dynamite. Dynamite is actually much more powerful than TNT.

What 2 chemicals are in the atomic bomb?

Two atomic bombs made by the allied powers (USA and UK) from uranium-235 and plutonium-239 were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki respectively early in August 1945. These brought the long Second World War to a sudden end.

Can you survive a nuclear bomb?

You’ll need to shield yourself from the thermal and nuclear radiation, as you could die if exposed. However, you must find somewhere safe – you don’t want to be crushed in a building destroyed by the blast wave. Get indoors, and preferably into a reinforced bunker or basement.

What is the force of a nuclear bomb?

Thus, a 1 kiloton nuclear weapon is one which produces the same amount of energy in an explosion as does 1 kiloton (1,000 tons) of TNT. Similarly, a 1 megaton weapon would have the energy equivalent of 1 million tons of TNT. One megaton is equivalent to 4.18 x 1015 joules.

Is dynamite illegal in USA?

Under federal explosives law, it is illegal to manufacture, store, distribute, receive or transport explosive materials without a federal explosives license or permit (FEL/FEP).

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