The most commonly reported mechanism of action of phenolics against bacteria is based on their accumulation at the surface of bacteria (Negi, 2012). This accumulation depends on interactions between phenolics and the cell wall of bacteria.
What do phenols do in the body?
Phenolic acids, readily absorbed through intestinal tract walls, are beneficial to human health due to their potential antioxidants and avert the damage of cells resulted from free-radical oxidation reactions. On regular eating, phenolic acids also promote the anti-inflammation capacity of human beings.
How do phenols act as antioxidants?
Phenolic compounds (PCs) acts as an antioxidant by reacting with a variety of free radicals. The mechanism of antioxidant actions involved either by hydrogen atom transfer, transfer of a single electron, sequential proton loss electron transfer, and chelation of transition metals.
What are phenolics what are they particularly effective against?
Phenolics have good chemical resistance and are resistant to alcohols, esters, ketones, ethers, chlorinated hydrocarbons, benzene, mineral oils, fats, and oils. Phenolics have good resistance to weak acids and bases but poor resistance to strong acids and bases, boiling water, and UV light.
What are the primary mechanisms of action of phenolics as disinfectants?
It is hypothesized that the lethal action of phenolic disinfectants is due to damage of permeability mechanisms, the repair of which is prevented by concomitant inhibition of energy-yielding metabolic reactions.
What is the mechanism of action of phenol compounds on microbial growth?
The mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds on bacterial cell have been partially attributed to damage to the bacterial membrane, inhibition of virulence factors such as enzymes and toxins, and suppression of bacterial biofilm formation.
What happens if phenol falls on skin?
If phenol is left on the skin, it will penetrate rapidly and lead to cell death and gangrene. If more than 60 square inches of skin are affected, there is risk of imminent death. Phenol appears to have local anesthetic properties and can cause extensive damage before pain is felt.
What does phenol do to the heart?
Abstract. The fall of blood-pressure after large doses of phenol is due to depression of the heart muscle and dilatation of the blood vessels. With small doses the increase of blood-pressure is due to stimulation of the heart muscle or of the vaso-motor center.
What is the mechanism of action of antioxidant?
Antioxidants can decrease the oxidative damage directly via reacting with free radicals or indirectly by inhibiting the activity or expression of free radical generating enzymes or enhancing the activity or expression of intracellular antioxidant enzymes.
What is the nature of phenolic compounds?
Phenolic compounds are secondary metabolites that are synthesized by plants via the pentose phosphate, shikimate and phenylpropanoid pathways (Randhir et al. ). They form the building blocks of lignin and they play crucial role in plants resistance to diseases and infections (Hutzler et al.
What phenolic means?
Definition of phenolic (Entry 2 of 2) 1 : a usually thermosetting resin or plastic made by condensation of a phenol with an aldehyde and used especially for molding and insulating and in coatings and adhesives. — called also phenolic resin. 2 : phenol sense 2.
How are phenolics used in microbial control?
The phenolics damage cell membranes and inactivate enzymes of microorganisms, while denaturing their proteins. They includecresols, such as Lysol, as well as several bisphenols, such as hexachlorophene, which is particularly effective against staphylococci (Figure 1 ).
What is the difference between phenols and phenolics?
Phenols that contain a carboxylic acid are termed as phenolic acids. If the carboxylic acid functional group is directly bonded to the phenol ring, the phenolic compound is termed as hydroxybenzoic acid.
Is phenolic a bioactive compound?
3.1. Phenolic compounds, also referred as polyphenols, are considered to be natural antioxidants and represent an important group of bioactive compounds in foods (Dueñas et al., 2005).
What is the mechanism of action of disinfectants?
The author describes the actions of disinfectants on the external membrane, cytoplasmic membrane and energy metabolism of cells; these actions include rupture of the membrane, loss of permeability and coagulation of the cytoplasm.
How do phenolic disinfectants inhibit microbial growth?
Phenolics tend to be stable, persistent on surfaces, and less toxic than phenol. They inhibit microbial growth by denaturing proteins and disrupting membranes.
What is the effect of high and low concentration of phenol on protein?
Phenol (carbolic acid) denatures protein and thereby causes denervation. Histologic sections show nonselective nerve destruction, muscle atrophy, and necrosis at the site of phenol injections. Higher concentrations of phenol are associated with greater tissue destruction.
What are the 3 most active phenol derivatives?
Gallic acid, procatechuic acid, and vanillic acid were the highest phenolics found in the studied wines with the contents up to 172.4, 99.1, and 26.6 mg L −1 , respectively.
Can you swallow phenol?
Swallowing phenol burns the lining of the digestive tract and can result in internal bleeding. Generally, the more serious the exposure, the more severe the symptoms. Phenol is absorbed easily into the body through the skin, lungs, and stomach. The brain is very sensitive to phenol.
Is phenol toxic to humans?
Exposure to phenol may occur from the use of some medicinal products (including throat lozenges and ointments). Phenol is highly irritating to the skin, eyes, and mucous membranes in humans after acute (short-term) inhalation or dermal exposures. Phenol is considered to be quite toxic to humans via oral exposure.
Is phenol a drug?
Descriptions. Phenol is used to relieve pain and irritation caused by sore throat, sore mouth, or canker sores. This medicine is available without a prescription; however, your doctor may have special instructions on the proper use and dose for your medical problem.
What are the side effects of phenol?
Exposure to phenol may cause irritation to the skin, eyes, nose, throat, and nervous system. Some symptoms of exposure to phenol are weight loss, weakness, exhaustion, muscle aches, and pain. Severe exposure can cause liver and/or kidney damage, skin burns, tremor, convulsions, and twitching.
How much phenol is toxic?
Phenol is a general protoplasmic poison (denatured protein) with corrosive local effects. Phenol derivates are less toxic than pure phenol. The lethal dose is between 3 to 30 g, but may be as little as 1 g. Phenol is well absorbed by inhalation, dermal application, and ingestion.
What is the smell of phenol?
Phenol has a distinct odor that is sickeningly sweet and tarry. You can taste and smell phenol at levels lower than those that are associated with harmful effects. Phenol evaporates more slowly than water, and a moderate amount can form a solution with water.
How do antioxidants break down free radicals?
Antioxidants neutralize free radicals either by providing the extra electron needed to make the pair, or by breaking down the free radical molecule to render it harmless. “Antioxidants stop the chain reaction of free radical formation and benefit our health by boosting our immune system ,” explains Prabhu.